The political party in each house of Congress with the most members.
The political party in each house of Congress with the second most members.
A formal gathering of all party members.
Speaker of the House
The only officer of the House of Representatives specially mentioned in the Constitution; the chamber's most powerful position; traditionally a member of the majority party.
The head of the party controlling the most seats in the house of representatives or the Senate; is second in authority to the Speaker of the House and in the Senate is regarded as its most powerful member.
The head of the party with the second highest number of elected representatives in the House of Representatives or the Senate.
Party leader who keeps close contact with all members of his or her party takes vote counts on key legislation
President Pro Tempore
The official chair of the Senate; usually the most senior member of the majority party.
Committee to which proposed bills are referred; continues from one Congress to the next.
Standing committee that includes members from both houses of Congress setup to conduct investigations or special studies.
Special joint committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House & Senate.
Temporary committee appointed for a specific purpose.
Petition that gives a majority of the House of Representatives the authority to bring an issue to the floor in the face of committee inaction.
Time of continuous service on a committee.
A session in which committee members offer changes to a bill before it goes to the floor.
A tactic by which a senator asks to be informed before a particular bill or nomination is brought to the floor. This request signals leadership that a member may have objections to the bill and should be consulted before further action is taken.
Mechanism requiring sixty senators to vote to cut off debate.
If congress adjourns during the ten days the president has to consider a bill passed by both houses of Congress the bill is considered vetoed without the president�s signature.
Congressional Budget Act of 1974
Act that established the congressional budget process by laying out a plan for congressional action on the annual budget resolution appropriations
A procedure that allows consideration of controversial issues affecting the budget by limiting debate to twenty hours thereby ending threat of a filibuster.
Legislation that allows representatives to bring money and jobs to their districts in the form of public works programs military bases
Funds that an appropriations bill designates for specific projects within a state or congressional district.
War Powers Act
Passed by Congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a 60 day period in peacetime unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period.
A process whereby Congress can nullify agency regulations by a joint resolution of legislative disapproval.
A process by which presidents when selecting district cour judges
Role played by an elected representative who listens to constituents opinions and then uses his or her best judgment to make a final decision.
Role played by an elected representative who votes the way his or her constituents would want him or her to regardless of his or her opinions.
Role played by an elected representative who acts as a trustee or as a delegate depending on the issue.
The political condition in which different political parties control the presidency and congress.
The political condition in which the same political party controls the presidency and congress.
Adopted in 1951; prevents a president from serving more than two terms or more than ten years if he came to office via the death
An implied presidential power that allows the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary.
U.S. v. Nixon
Supreme Court ruling on power of the president holding that there is no absolute constitutional executive privilege allowing a president to refuse to comply with a court order to produce information needed in a criminal trial.
Adopted in 1967 to establish procedures for filling vacancies in the office of president and vice president as well as providing for procedures to deal with the disability of a president.
The formal body of presidential advisers who head the fifteen executive departments. Presidents often add others to this body of formal advisers.
Formal international agreements entered into by the president that do not require the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate.
The formal constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of Congress
The authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending. Ruled unconstitutional by the U.S Supreme Court.
Powers that belong to the president because they can be inferred from the Constitution.
The name given to the program of Relief Recovery
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
A mini-bureaucracy created in 1939 to help the president oversee the executive branch bureaucracy.
Office Of Management and Budget (OMB)
The office that prepares the president's annual budget proposal reviews the budget and programs of the executive departments
Rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
Area of policy-making that encompasses how one country builds relationships with other countries in order to safeguard its national interest.
Area of policy-making that focuses on the strategies that a country uses to protect itself from its enemies.
A national policy of avoiding participation in foreign affairs.
Legislation passed by Congress in 1807 to prevent U.S. ships from leaving U.S. ports without the approval of the federal government.
President James Monroe�s 1823 pledge that the United States would oppose attempts by European states to extend their political control into the Western Hemisphere.
Taxes on imported goods.
Theory that the United States was divinely mandated to expand across North America to the Pacific Ocean.
Concept developed by President Theodore Roosevelt early in the twentieth century declaring that it was the responsibility of the United States to assure stability in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The idea that an attack on one country is an attack on all countries.
Bretton Woods System
International financial system devised shortly before the end of World War II that created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International governmental organization created shortly before the end of World War II to stabilize international currency transactions.
International governmental organization created shortly before the end of World War II to provide loans for large economic development projects.
General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT)
Post-World War II economic development program designed to help facilitate international trade negotiations and promote free trade.
U.S. policy initiated in 1947 to provide economic assistance & military aid to countries fighting against communist revolutions or political pressure.
European collective recovery program named after secretary Of State George C. Marshall
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The first peacetime military treaty joined by the United States; NATO is a collective security pact between the United States & Western Europe.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation over the deployment of ballistic missiles in Cuba that nearly escalated into war between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The improvement in relations between the United States and the Soviet Union that occurred during the 1970s.
The protection of people's basic freedoms and needs.
The Reagan administration's commitment to ending communism by providing military assistance to anti-communist groups.
Policy implemented during the Clinton administration in which the United States would actively promote the expansion of democracy and free markets throughout the world.
War On Terrorism
An international action initiated by President George W Bush after the 9/11 attacks to weed out terrorist operatives throughout the world.
Department of State
Chief executive Branch Department responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy.
Department of Defense
Chief executive branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. defense and military policy.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Military advisory body that includes the Army chief of staff the Air Force chief of staff
Department of Homeland Security
Cabinet department created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks to coordinate domestic security efforts.
The alliance formed by the U.S. armed forces and defense industries.
A trade policy wherein a country closes off its markets to foreign goods.
Strategic Trade Policy
A trade policy wherein governments identify key industries that they wish to see grow and enact policies to support this economic enlargement.
Free Trade System
A system of international trade with limited government interference.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement that promotes free movement of goods & services among Canada, Mexico
World Trade Organization (WTO)
An international organization created in 1995 to supervise and open international trade.
The final decision of the constitutional Convention to create a two-house legislature with the lower house elected by the people and with powers divided between the two houses. It also made national law supreme.
The Articles of the Constitution
The first three articles established the three branches of government.
Article I: The Legislative Branch
Article I vest all legislative powers in the congress and establishes a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Article II: The Executive Branch
Article II vest the executive power that is, the authority to execute the laws of the nation, in a president of the United States.
Article III: The Judicial Branch
Article III establishes a Supreme Court & defines its jurisdiction.
Must be a natural-born citizen of the U.S at least 35 yrs. Old