psych 4-1

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psych 4-1
2011-11-02 18:39:13

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  1. Absolute threshold
    the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
  2. Adaptation
    the adjustment or changes in behavior of an organism to become more suited to an environment.
  3. Additive color mixing
    This is the process of producing color through the addition of different colors of light.
  4. Aerial perspective
    The technique of representing more distant objects as fainter and more blue.
  5. Afterimage
    An impression of a vivid sensation (esp. a visual image) retained after the stimulus has ceased.
  6. Ambiguous figures
    any stimulus which can be perceived in more than one way.
  7. Amplitude
    The maximum extent of a vibration or oscillation, measured from the position of equilibrium.
  8. Auditory nerve
    acoustic nerve: a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea.
  9. Autokinetic illusion
    is a phenomenon of human visual perception in which a stationary, small point of light in an otherwise dark or featureless environment appears to move.
  10. Basilar membrance
    A membrane in the cochlea that bears the organ of Corti.
  11. Binaural cue
    Having to do with the perception of sound with both ears.
  12. Binding problem
    is one of a number of terms at the interface between neuroscience and philosphy which suffer from being used in several different ways, often in a context that does not explicitly indicate which way the term is being used.
  13. Binocular cues
    depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of the two eyes.
  14. Biopsychological theory
    an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
  15. Bipolar cells
    a type of neuron located in the inner nuclear layer and transfer information from the outer plexiform cells to the inner retina.
  16. Blind spot
    the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a _____ _____ because no receptor cells are located there.
  17. Bottum-up processing
    analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
  18. Brightness
    the attribute of light-source colors by which emitted light is ordered continuously from light to dark in correlation with its intensity.
  19. Cochlea
    a coiled, bony, fluid filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
  20. color
    the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to categories called red, blue, green, and other.
  21. color blindness
    the inhability to see certain colors in the normal way.
  22. color constancy
    perceiving familiar objects as having consisten color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
  23. cones
    retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conitions. they detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
  24. convergence
    The degree to which the eyes turn inward to fixate on an object.
  25. cornea
    is the transparent front of the eye that covers the iris, pupil and anterior chamber.
  26. dark adaptation
    The gradual improvement of the eyes' sensitivity after a shift in illumination from light to near darkness.
  27. decibel
    is the logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity (usually power or intesity) relative to a specified or implied reference level.
  28. dichromats
    a person that is color blind or unable to distinguish differences in blue. or a person who has normal eye vision in one eye and dichromacy in the other.
  29. difference threshold/JND
    the minimum different between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
  30. electromagnetic spectrum
    the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
  31. feature detectors
    nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement.
  32. figure
    Object-like regions of the visual field that are distinguished from background.
  33. fovea
    Area of the retina that contains densely packed cones and forms the point of sharpest vision.
  34. frequency
    the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second).
  35. frequency theory
    The theory that a tone produces a rate of vibration in the basilar membrane equal to its frequency, with the result that pitch can be coded by the frequency of the neural response.
  36. ganglion cells
    Cells in the visual system that integrate impulses from many bipolar cells in a single firing rate.