the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The"gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
Golgi tendon organs
is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that is located at the insertion of skeletal muscle fibers into the tendons of skeletal muscle.
The backdrop or background areas of the visual field, against which figures stand out.
the act or sensation of tasting.
Hammer, anvil, stirrup
three tiny bones in the inner ear. They act as levers, to amplify the vibrations created by the ear drum. Ear drum oscillations are very weak, not strong enough to sufficiently move the liquid inside the cochlea. These three bones, also called ossicles are critical to hearing.
The SI unit of frequency, equal to one cycle per second
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we known as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
An experience of a stimulus pattern in a manner that is demonstrably incorrect but shared by others in the same perceptual environment.
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
Sense concerned with bodily position and movement of the body parts relative to each other.
Law of continuity
the Gestalt principle that we prefer perceptions of connected and continuous figures to disconnect and disjoined ones.
Law of proximity
A law of grouping that states that the nearest, or most proximal, elements are grouped together.
Law of similarity
A law of grouping that states that the most similar elements are grouped together.
Laws of perceptual grouping
the Gestalt principles of similarity, proximity, continuity, and common fate.
transparent part of the eye inside the pupil that focuses light onto the retina.
the small segment of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensitive.
decreased sensitivity of rods and cones in bright light.
monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that two parallel lines seem to come together at the horizon.
cue to sound location that requires just one ear.
people who are totally color blind.
visual cues requiring the use of one eye.
monocular distance cue: objects closer than point of visual focus seem to move opposite viewer’s moving head, and objects beyond the focus point seem to move same direction.
the smell center in the brain.
nasal membranes containing receptor cells sensitive to odors.
Theory of color vision that three sets of color receptors (yellow-blue, red-green, black-white) respond in either/or fashion to determine the color you experience.
point near the base of the brain where some fibers in the optic nerve from each eye cross to the other side of the brain.
the bundle of axons of ganglion cells that carries neural messages from each eye to the brain.
Organ of corti
structure on the surface of the basilar membrane that contains the receptors cells for hearing.
membrane across the opening between the middle ear and inner ear that conducts vibrations to the cochlea.
tones that result from sound waves that are multiples of the basic tone: primary determinant of timbre.
small bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds.
The processes that organize information in the sensory image and interpret it as having been produced by properties of objects or events in the external, three-dimensional world.
tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changes in sensory stimulation.
illusion due to misleading cues in stimuli that give rise to inaccurate or impossible perceptions.
readiness to detect a particular stimulus in a given context – as when a person who is afraid interprets an unfamiliar sound in the night as a threat.
chemical that communicates information to other organisms through smell.