AP Biology chapter 4 Carbon Chemestry

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Culbe2014
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114076
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AP Biology chapter 4 Carbon Chemestry
Updated:
2011-11-02 19:18:18
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AP Biology chapter Carbon Chemestry
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AP Biology chapter 4 Carbon Chemestry
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  1. Hybridization
    The valence electron goes from the s to the p level
  2. 1 carbon
    meth- or form-
  3. 2 carbons
    eth- or acet-
  4. 3 carbons
    pro- or glycer-
  5. 4 carbons
    butyl
  6. 5 carbons
    pentyl
  7. 6 carbons
    hexyl
  8. Hydride/hydryl
    • -H
    • All organic molecules
  9. Hydroxyl
    • -OH
    • Alcohols, diols
    • suffix - -ol
  10. Carbonyl
    • =O
    • Aldehydes (terminal)
    • suffix - -al
    • Ketones (subterminal)
    • Suffix - -one
  11. Carboxyl
    • -C=O-OH
    • Always terminal
    • Acids
    • Suffix - -oic
  12. Amine
    • -NH2
    • 3 types
    • -NH2 = primary
    • -NH- = secondary
    • -N- = tertiary
    • Amino acids, nitrogen bases
  13. Sulfhydryl
    • -SH
    • 2 types
    • -SH = primary
    • -S- = secondary
    • Amino acids
    • Suffix - -thiol
  14. Phosphate
    • -H2PO4 (-O-PO3=)
    • ATP, PGAL, glucose-6-phosphate
  15. Structural isomer
    • Chain or skeletal isomerism
    • 2-methylpentane vs. 3-methylpentane
    • Positional isomerism
    • change in position of functional group
    • Functional group isomerism
    • change of functional group to another form
  16. Chiral isomers
    • chiral C = carbon with 4 different functional groups
    • enantiomers – non-superimposable

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