physio test 3 b sex pt. II, emotion & aggression.txt

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physio test 3 b sex pt. II, emotion & aggression.txt
2011-11-05 08:47:08
PSU physiological psychology

Physio Psych Test 3 (b) sex, emotion & aggression
Show Answers:

  1. When do primary and secondary sex characteristics occur?
    In utero & during puberty
  2. Puberty is onset by the _________ in the brain, which releases GnRH
  3. Gonadotropin releasing hormones (GnRH) produce what 2 hormones? Also, what do these hormones do?
    • FSH (Follicile Stimulating hormones) & LH (Lutenizing hormones)
    • FSH and LH trigger ovulation, sperm production, testosterone secretion etc.
  4. This is a hormone that controls energy regulation and expenditure. Because of this, it helps signal and determine menarche
  5. Most possible damage occurs during ___ trimester
  6. what happens When previously partnered ewes are disguised in sunglasses and re-presented to a ram?
    The ram rejects the ewe, and tells his ram bros he was really drunk that night so dont judge him
  7. Female rodents seek out mates. They signal to potential partners by grinding on the dance floor. this is an example of:
  8. If XY rodents are not exposed to androgen, they will do what?
    engage in lordosis
  9. (Dabs, 2000) Increased arrests, tattoos, AWOL military status, authority issues, and in general arousal is linked to...
    increases testosterone levels
  10. Produced by the body and released outside the body. In animals it is effective enough to induce puberty, stop puberty, or induce a misacarriage.
  11. Do humans have a VNO? Is there evidence of one?
    Maybe, it might dissapear during fetal development
  12. A girl's sweat is smelled by a group of other girls. What might happen and what is the term for it?
    The girls would menstruate on the same schedule. "Menstrual Synchrony"
  13. What nervous system(s) are involved in erection and ejaculation?
    • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) [and sub-PNS: Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)]
    • [pathway: stimulation-> spinal cord (erection center reflex)-> PNS -> muscles and arteries in penis]
  14. part of brain responsible for sexual motivation:
  15. controls the 4 F's
  16. Within the hypothalamus: this is larger in males. responsible for sexual behavior.
    sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area (SDN-MPOA)
  17. within the hypothalamus: responsible for sexaul function during genital stroking
    Paraventricular [para "alongside" a ventricle!] Nucleus (PVN)
  18. within the hypothalamus: this is thought to be responsilbe for sexual orientation
    INAH-3 ( third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus)
  19. within the limbic system: this part is deactivated when viewing a loved one
    amygdala (which processes fear)
  20. within the limbic system: this connects the amygdala and the hypothalamus; thought responsible for gender identity
    BNST (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis)
  21. within the limbic system: responsible for the satisfaction of sex
    basal ganglia
  22. within the limbic system: responsible for some emotional aspects of sex
    cingulate gyrus
  23. within the limbic system: responsible for erection related brain activity
  24. Neurotransmitters: 5-Ht: ___ sex function DA: ___ NE: ___ PEA: ___
    inhibit, increase, increase, love tingles
  25. damage to the frontal lobe and temporal lobe poles (damaged inhibition and recognition functions) would lead to what?
    compulsive sexual activity
  26. 3 predictors of homosexuality:
    • Self report
    • childhood play ATYPICAL of gender
    • # of older bros (for men)
  27. Subjects who had deficits of the OFC (Orbito Frontal Cortex) do not score well on the ....
    Faux Pas Test (disinhibition of behavior/decision making)
  28. If my _________ and my basal ganglia were damaged, I wouldn't be able to recognize that look of disgust on your face when I start singing showtunes in class.
  29. The _______ is involved in vocaliations, fear, anger, fighting, fleeing, and lust.. . all the characteristics of a story line on a good soap opera, right?
    PAG (Periaquaductal Gray Matter)
  30. the PAG (periaquaductal gray matter) recieves input from the ___________ (particularly the amygdala) and this is likely why it is involved in anger and aggression.
    limbic system
  31. Destruction of the ________ leads to disinhibition of behavior.
    OFC (Orbito Frontal Cortex)
  32. Impulsive aggression can be treated with SSRI's because there are many ______________ neurons in the PFC (prefrontal cortex) HINT use it as an adjective
    serotonergic (5-HT)
  33. A famous case study of a man with damage to his VPFC (Ventromedial prefrontal cortex)
    Phineas Gage
  34. Baby elephants with a lot of testosterone misbehaved and killed the local _____ for no real reason.
  35. If I hear the words "happy," "sad," "grieving," and "excited," my right ventrolateral ______________ will show increased activity
    prefrontal cortex
  36. Cow injected with testosterone become ________ in their herds
  37. The origin of feelings and recognizing disgust is likely related to.....
    disease avoidance
  38. The "would you push a fat man on the train tracks" scenario activated the ____________ in healthy participants.
    Medial PFC (prefrontal cortex)
  39. ___________ appears to convey fear to the observer.
  40. of 0M, 1M, and 2M females, 2M females are the most likely to exhibit ...............
  41. Our usual suspect hormone: __________, can increase aggression in animals and humans
  42. ____________ androgens influence the development of testosterone-sensitive neurons, then activational hormones kick in to trigger behavior.
  43. Low _________ was found in really risky monkeys.
    serotonin 5-Ht
  44. "putting our ______ into words helps us heal better" (Lieberman et al., 2007)
  45. Lesions to the amygdala seem to impair someone's ability to recognize others' facial ________
  46. Vital to analyzing social situations
    Ventral PFC (prefrontal cortex)
  47. Understanding the emotions in my tone of voice is processed by the PFC in the _____________ hemisphere
  48. ____________ girls were exposed to excess androgens in utero and tend to prefer to play with boys and boy-directed toys.
    CAH (congential adrenal hyperplasia)
  49. the more an amygdala is degenerated, the ________ likely someone will remember the emotionally-charged event.
  50. I now am afraid to use the knife I cut my thumb with. This emotional experience definitely involves my __________.
  51. Damage to the VPFC (ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex) affects the ability to consider ___________. This is a biological correlate of the personal fable adolecents experience.
  52. If you see a(n) ___________ or fearful face, you will likely have increased bloodflow to the amygdala.
  53. The PFC + the amygdala working together may give you that ________ feeling about an issue or situation.
  54. May be related to taking natural or synthetic steroids-- no good can come from this
    Roid Rage
  55. Putting feelings into words:: if you think about "angry face," the ______ activates; if you say "angry face!" the ______ is active instead.
    • amygdala;
    • Right prefrontal cortex
  56. the _________ (in each temporal lobe) reacts to things with biological significance; pain, hunger, thirst, sex, fear, & maybe pheromones??
  57. The amygdala produces strong and memorable emotional reactions to things. If the amygdala is damaged then, this could happen:
    memory loss/ poor formation
  58. animals would prefer to use ______ over aggression
  59. Vocalizations or screaming that produce fight flight or freeze response are processed here: (defense of predation)
    PAG Periaquaductal grey matter
  60. Issues of aggression may be treated with this neurotransmitter
  61. If serotonin decreases aggression (it does), then explain how a monkey can turn into a risky monkey:
    with lowered serotonin, aggression is less inhibited and contributes to risky, dirty monkey behavior
  62. regulates and analyzes social situations
  63. Fineaus Gage: received a rail spike in the ventral prefrontal cortex(specifically in the ____________); this part of the PFC controls behavioral inhibition
    orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
  64. Damge to the _______ is linked with failed faux pas tests
    orbitofrontal cortex
  65. The ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC+OFC) controls ____ functioning; (Phineas Gage)
    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) controls ______ functioning. (fat man on the trolley tracks)
    • social;
    • emotional/moral
  66. Elkind, 1967: "______" belief that one is invincible
    personal fable
  67. In rodents: a removed VNO (vomeronasal organ) or just males doused in female rodent urine would have what outcome?
    No aggression (territorial or other)
  68. In rat litters: if a female has 2 male rat brother neighbors on each side, she is likely to be ________ after she is born [also true with rat twins]
    more aggressive
  69. Emotional communication is lateralized to __________________
    the right hemisphere
  70. observed eyes can show ____.
  71. If the amygdala is damaged, a person might not observe the _______ for emotional cues
  72. disgust: its evolutionary adaptation is..
    disease avoidance
  73. When we are disgusted, these parts of the brain are primarily active: _______ (cognitive "thats gross") & _______ (movement "get away")
    • Insula;
    • basal ganglia