desert centipede that is at one end, butterfly has
false head on its back with moving antennae
what is the term for when lizards loose their tails
explain the way a bombardier beetle avoid predators
it sprays benzoquinone with precision
how did the spray technique of the bombardier beetle evolve
What is the warning coloration to show toxicity.
do animals learn to avoid high contrast or low contrast prey? Explain the study
toxic bugs painted to be conspicuous or cryptic and the manatids were
how can mimics benefir if predators die from coral snake?
it mimics less poisonous relative from south america
explain selfish herd
when the prey uses others as shields while they tryy to move to center of the group
how does the average per capita risk increase
when animals spread them selves out.
explain the confusion effect.
when predators have difficulty choosing a target our of a tightly packed group
explain group vigilence.
when they stand watch for predators. for exable zebras that stand head to tail
explain the vervet alarm calls
they have three different kinds of alarm calls depending on the predator.
what is some strong evidence that mobbing may be an adaptation?
that unrelated species have similar risk and all mob
The different gull species that all mob is an example of...
what is the difference between the convergent and divergent evolution?
convergent:: distant species independently evolve similar adapation. Divergent: Closely related species evolve differnt adaptation
with the one origin hypothesis how many gains and how many losess occured.
1 gain 3 losses and 4 evolutionry events
when you selected the path with fewest evolutionary events is...
how many times has flight arose
which mode of breeding is ancestral, plural or singular cooperative breeding?
What is the term for an advanced form of sociality involving reductive division of labor and cooperative brood care?
name 4 phylogentic trends that might influence behavior
body size, complexity, brain to body size ration, cephalization (having a head)
can we build phylogenies based on behavior? what example of this
yes. the bowerbirds that build a display in front of nest with certain colors to attract a mate. related species build similar bowers
what are the three criteria of local adapatation
1. geographic variation in a trait, 2. variaation at least partly genetic based, 3. genetic variation int he trait consistent with geographic variation in some enviornmental factor affecting fitness
break down how the three critea of local adapation were met in the case of the funnel spiders
1. the two speices differed in amt of time spent getting food
2. when reared in the same garden offrpring of ea. showed differences
3. the fact that birds may hover over or that there may be a scarcity of food may cause the difference in time spent for the spider getting food.
explain and give example of reciprical coevolution
local adaptation by snake if followed by local counter adaption in newt then more local adaptation in snake... etc
can we say that killer whales have local adaptation?
no because critea two may kinda be met but three is not met
can we say chimps have local adaptation in behavior?
no bc critear 2 and 3 hasnt been met
explain Michael Nachman's pocket mouse experiment and how it relates to behavior as an agent of selection
there is an agent of selection whish is raptors that can eat the mice. so it is a driving force behind why the mice have different colors based on the different regions.
when does geographical variation not reflect local adaptation?
When it is due to genetic drift, founder effect, and when there are multiple solution to the same problem.
examples of Less ideal traits in nature
imperfect mimicry, imperfect lens camera eye, stomach brooding
what is the panda principle?
the what evolves isnt always the best solution to the problem but it works. Natural selection takes path of least resistance
name of the type of organism that lays unfertalized female eggs
Explain the example of the whiptail lizard and how it relates to less ideal traits in nature. and why hasnt natural selection gotten rid of it?
They pseudocopulate which triggers hormonal changes which then triggers ovulation. this is not gotten rid of bc there is an adaptive alley where in order for them to reach max fitness the intermediates would have a lower fitness than previously and natrual selection doesnt work that way
what are the 7 steps of builing opitmalty models
1. state goal of optimization 2. state conditions and constraints of model 3. state terms of model 4. run model and generate prediction 5. test prediction 6. evalute conditioin 7. revise model if necessary.
when looking to optimize patch time what are the conditions of the model.
currency of fitness, description of resource enviornment, foraging constraints
what does the graph of gain funtion look like? what is the margina rate of e on graph? where is travel time on the graph? when drawing a line to determing the avrage rate of E intatke (R) where is it optimal?
Energy gain v time in patch. it starts at zero in an upside down parabola type motion. the slope of the line tangent and any given value of T in patch. behind origin. Starting behind and continuing tanget to curve
when looking at copulation duration in dung flie explain there "patch" time.
when there is a higher ratio of males to female ther spend more time copulating than when there is alower ratio
what is the marginal value rule
a predator should stay in patch til its margina rate of E gain drops to average rate of E gain in entire habitat
what happens if you add competitors to an entire habitat of patches?
with high competitors you increase avg uptake of E the curve will have same shape but be lower which makes patch time increase
What is the equation for specialist rate of E intake. generalist?