Med Term Ch. 9

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Med Term Ch. 9
2011-11-04 16:31:41
Blood Lymph Immune System

Blood, Lymph, and Immune System
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  1. antibody
    Protective protein produced byB lymphocytes in response to presence of a foreign susbstance called an antigen
  2. antigen
    substance recognized as harmful to the host and stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual
  3. bile pigments
    substances derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin, produced by the liver, and excreted in the form of bile
  4. cytokines
    chemical substances produced by certain cells that initiate, inhibit, increase, or decrease activity in other cells
  5. extracellular fluid
    all body fluids found outside cells, including intestinal fluid, plasma, lymph, and cerebrospinal fluid
  6. host
    organism that maintains or harbors another organism
  7. immunocompetent
    ability to develop an immune response, or the ability to recognize antigens and respond to them
  8. natural killer cells
    specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releasing chemicals that destroy the cell membrane causing its intercellular fluids to leak out
  9. Granulocytes:
    • protective action:
    • -phagocytosis
    • -allergy, animal parasites
    • -inflammation mediators, anticoagulant properties
  10. Agranulocytes
    -Lymphocytes (B cells and T cells)
    -Natural Killer Cells
    • Protective action:
    • -phagocytosis
    • - B=humoral immunity. C=cellular immunity
    • -destruction without specificity
  11. aden/o
  12. agglutin/o
    clumping, gluing
  13. bas/o
    base (alkaline, opposite of acid)
  14. blast/o
    embryonic cell
  15. eosin/o
    dawn (rose colored)
  16. granul/o
  17. hem/o
  18. immun/o
    immune, immunity, safe
  19. kary/o
  20. leuk/o
  21. lymphaden/o
    lymph gland (node)
  22. lymph/o
  23. lymphangi/o
    lymph vessel
  24. morph/o
    form, shape, structure
  25. myel/o
    bone marrow; spinal cord
  26. neutr/o
    neutral, neither
  27. phag/o
    swallowing, eating
  28. plas/o
    formation growth
  29. poikil/o
    varied, irregular
  30. reticul/o
    net, mesh
  31. ser/o
  32. sider/o
  33. splen/o
  34. thromb/o
    blood clot
  35. thym/o
    thymus gland
  36. xen/o
    foreign, strange
  37. -blast
    embryonic cell
  38. -emia
    blood condition
  39. -globin
  40. -graft
  41. -osis
    abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
  42. -penia
    decrease, deficiency
  43. -phil
    attraction for
  44. -phoresis
    carrying, transmission
  45. -phylaxis
  46. -poiesis
    formation, production
  47. -stasis
    standing still
  48. allo-
    other, differing from the normal
  49. aniso-
    unequal, dissimilar
  50. iso-
    same, equal
  51. macro-
    condition of marked variation in the size of erythrocytes when observed on a blood smear
  52. ascites
    accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal or pleural cavity
  53. bacteremia
    presence of viable bacteria circulating in the bloodstream usually transient in nature
  54. graft rejection
    destruction of a transplanted organ or tissue by the recipient's immune system
  55. graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD)
    condition that occurs following bone marrow transplant in which the immune cells in the transplanted marrow produce antibodies against the host's tissues
  56. hematoma
    localized accumulation of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue due to a break in or serving of a blood vessel
  57. hemoglobinopathy
    any disorder caused by abnormalities in the hemoglobin molecule
  58. hemolysis
    destruction of RBCs with a release of hemoglobin that diffuses into the surrounding fluid
  59. hemostasis
    arrest of bleeding or circulation
  60. immunity
    • state of being protected against infectious diseases
    • -immunity produced by the person's own immune system
    • -immunity in which antibodies or other immune substances formed in one individual are transferred to another individual to provide immediate, temporary immunity
  61. lymphdenopathy
    any disease of the lymph nodes
  62. lymphosarcoma
    malignant neoplastic disorder of lymphatic tissue (not related to Hodgkin disease)
  63. septicemia
    serious, life-threatening bloodstream infection that may arise from infection, meningitis, or infections of the bone of GI tract, also called blood infection or blood poisoning
  64. serology
    laboratory test to detect the presence of antibodies, antigens or immune substances
  65. titer
    blood test that measures the amount of antibodies in blood; commonly used as in indicator of immune status
  66. blood culture
    test to detemine the presence of bathogens in the bloodstream
  67. differential count (diff)
    test that enumerates the distribution of WBCs in a stained blood smear by counting the different kinds of WBCs and reporting each as a percentage of the total examined
  68. erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
    measurement of the distance RBCs settle to the bottom of a test tube under standardized condition; also called sed rate
  69. hemoglobin (Hgb) value
    measurement of the amount of hemoglobin in a whole blood sample
  70. hematocrit (Hct)
    measurement of the percentage of RBCs in a whole blood sample
  71. monospot
    non specific rapid serological test for infectious mononuclousis; also called the heterophile antibody test
  72. partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
    test that measures the lenght of time it takes blood to clot. It screens for deficiencies of some clotting factors and monitors the effectiveness of anticoagulant (heparin) therapy; also called activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
  73. red blood cell indices
    math calculation of the size, volume, and concentration of hemoglobin for an RBC
  74. schilling test
    test used to assess the absorption of radioactive vitamin B12 by the digestive system
  75. lymphadenography
    radiographic examination of lymph nodess after injection of a contrast medium
  76. lymphangiography
    radiographic examination of lymph vessels or tissues after injection of a contrast medium
  77. aspiration
    -bone marrow
    • drawing in or out by suction
    • -procedure using a syringe with a thin aspirating needle inserted (usually in the pelvic bone and rarely the sternum) to withdraw a small sample of bone marrow flud for microscopic evaluation
  78. -bone marrow biopsy
    -sentinel node biopsy
    • -removal of a small core sample of tissue from bone marrow for examination under a microscope and, possibly, for analysis using other tests
    • -removal of the first lymph node (the sentinel node) that receives drainage from cancer-containing areas and the one most likely to contain malignant cells
  79. lymphangiectomy
    removal of a lymph vessel
  80. transfusion
    • infusion of blood or blood components into the blood stream
    • -transfusion prepared from the recipient's own blood
    • -transfusion prepared from another individual whose blood is compatible with that of the recipient
  81. transplantation
    -autologous bone marrow
    -homologous bone marrow
    • -harvesting, freezing (cryopreserving), and reinfusing the patient's own bone marrow to treat bone marrow hypoplasia following cancer therapy
    • -transplantation of bone marrow from one individual to another to treat aplastic anemia, leukemia, and immunodeficiency disorders
  82. study abbreviation
    there are a lot of them
  83. fat-soluble vitamins
    prevent and treat bleeding disorders resulting from a lack of prothrombin, which is commonly caused by vitamin K deficiency
  84. thrombolytics
    dissolve bllod clots by destroying their fibrin strands
  85. anticoagulants
    prevent blood clot formation by inhibiting the synthesis or inactivating one or more clotting factors
  86. antifibrinolytics
    neutralize fibrinolytic chemicals in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and urinary tract to prevent the breakdown of blood clots
  87. antimicrobials
    destroy bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, depending on the particular drug, generally by interfering with the funtions of their cell membrane of their reproductive cycle
  88. antivirals
    prevent replication of viruses within host cells