nsg fundamentals chpt 36

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nsg fundamentals chpt 36
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2011-11-03 00:51:41
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chapter 36 nutrition
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nutrition chapter
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  1. -study of how food nourishes the body. study of nutrients and how they are handles by the body

    - specific biochemical subs used by the body for growth, dev't, activity, reproduction, lactation, health maitenance and recovery from illness
    • -nutrition
    • -nutrients
  2. essential nutrients that supply energy and build tissue
    -referred to as macronutrients
    carbohydrates, fats and proteins
  3. require in smaller amounts that regulates and controls body processes
    - referred to as micronutrients
    vitamins, minerals and water
  4. sum of all calories used to perform physical activity, maintain basal metabolism, digest, absorb and metabolize food
    total daily energy expenditure
  5. daily energy intake is equal to total daily energy expenditure
    weight will remainl stable
  6. if energy intake is less than the energy expended
    weight will decrease
  7. if energy intake exceeds energy expenditure
    weight will increase
  8. energy required to carry on involuntary activities of the body at rest.
    • basal metabolism
    • -men have higher BMR than women.
  9. factors that increase BMR
    • -fever
    • -growth
    • -infection
    • -emotional tension
    • -elevated levels of hormone (epi & thyroid)
    • -extreme env't temp
  10. factors that decrease BMR
    • -aging
    • -prolonged fasting
    • -sleep
  11. methods to establish ideal body weights
    BMI - body mass index for aduls and children, also provide estimation of relative risk for disease such as DM HTN and Heart disease

    waist circumference for adults
  12. -sugars and starches
    -composed of C, H, and O2
    -structural framework of plants
    -lactose- animal source of carbs in diet
    -easy to produce and store and most abundant and least expensive
    -classified ad simple or complex
    carbohydrates
  13. -90% of carbs intake is ingested
    -decreases as fiber intake increases
    -converted to glucose transport to blood and enegry use
    -cells oxidize glucose to provide energy, CO2 and H2O
    -burned effeciently and does not leave toxic products
    • carbohydrates
    • -50-100 g are needed daily to prevent ketosis
  14. contain C, H, O, N.
    -require for body structure formation: genes, enzymes, blood, muscle, bones, skin, matrix
    -RDA - 56-63 g/ 110-20%
    protein
  15. contain sufficient amts of amino acids
    -- animal protein (eggs, dairy prod, and meat)
    -complete (high quality) proteins
  16. deficient in one or more amino acids
    - plant proteins (grains, legumes and veggies)
    incomplete (low quality) proteins
  17. nitrogen intake is > excretion
    -during periods of growth, preg, lactation and recovery from illness
    positive nitrogen balance
  18. nitrogen excretion is > that intake/ingested
    -during periods of starvation and catabolism follows surgery, illness, trauma and stress
    negative nitrogen balance
  19. insoluble in H2O and blood
    -C, H O2
    -95% of lipids are triglyceride
    -digestion occurs @ small intestines
    -most concentrated source of energy
    -RDA recommends not more than 20-35% caloric intake
    • lipids
    • -most fats are absorbed through lymphatic circulation by a protein carrier and transported to liver
    • -9 cal/g
  20. contain more hydrogen
    -animal fats
    -solid @ room temp
    -raise cholesterol levels
    saturated FA
  21. vegetable fats
    -liquid @ room temp
    -lowers cholesterol levels
    -oils
    unsaturated FA
  22. partially hydrogenated liquid, oils
    -more solid and stable
    -raises cholesterol
    trans fat
  23. fat subs found only in animal products
    -impt component of cell membranes
    -abundant in brain and nerve cells
    -use to synthesize bile acids
    -precursor of steroid hormone and vit D
    -high levels - atherosclerosis
    cholesterol
  24. org compounds needed by the body in small amts
    -are in active form of conezyme- facilitates chemical rxn
    -needed for metabolism of carbs protein and fats
    vit
  25. -absorbed through intestinal wall directly into bloodstream
    --vit C and B
    -not stored in the body and daily intake is recommended
    -non toxic
    water-soluble vitamins
  26. -absorbed with fat into lymphatic circulation
    -stores excess vit in liver and adipose tissue
    -daily intake is not imperative
    -vit A D E K
    -excessive vit A and D are toxic
    fat soluble vit
  27. inorganic elements found in body fluid and tissues in form os sallts
    -provide structure w/in body
    -containes in the ash that remains after digestion
    -excessive soaking and cooking in h2o can cause loss of minerals in food
    • minerals -bones
    • -not destroyed by food processing
  28. bulk minerals needed by body >100mg/day
    -Ca, P, S, Na, Cl, K, Mg
    macrominerals -blood
  29. traced elements
    -needed by body <100mg/day
    -have recommended dietary intake
    -iron zinc manganese, chromium, ..etc
    microminerals
  30. accounts bet 50-60% of body wt
    -2/3 h20 are in cells (ICF) the remained are in ECF - all other body fluids such as plasma and interstitial fluid
    -provides fluid medium for all chemical rxn
    -solvent, aids digestion, absopt, circulation and excretion
    • water
    • -not stored in the body
    • -lubricant for joint movement
    • -ECF decreases with age
    • -ICF increases with body mass
  31. produces through metabolism of carbs, protein and fats
    -leaves through urine, feces and expired
    -2000-3000 mL/day
    water

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