Microbiology Chapter #12 B

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aji
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114186
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Microbiology Chapter #12 B
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2011-11-03 03:23:12
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itsaji PHCC
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Fungi - Part 2
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  1. Fungal Divisions
    • Zygomycota
    • Ascomycota
  2. Division Zygomycota (Zygote Fungi)
    • Black bread mold
    • Rhizopus stolonifer
  3. Division Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
    • Peziza cups
    • Morals
    • Truffles
  4. Division Basidiomycota ( Club Fungi)
    Mushrooms, Shelf Fungi, and Stinkhorns
  5. ___Produce asexual spores only
    Anamorphs
  6. Rrna sequencing places most in Ascomycota a few are Basidiomycota
    • Penicillium
    • Sporothrix (subcutaneous mycosis)
    • Stachybotrys, Coccidioides, Pneumocystis (systemic mycoses)
    • Candida albicans (cutaneous mycoses)
  7. Anamorphs Nutritional Adaptations
    • Grow best in an acid ph of about 5.0
    • Almost all molds are aerobic while most yeasts are facultative anaerobes.
    • Most fungi are resistant to osmotic pressure.
    • Can grow with very low moisture.
    • Require less nitrogen than bacteria.
    • Capable of metabolizing complex carbohydrates.
  8. Economic Effects of Fungi
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Bread, wine, HBV vaccine
    • Trichoderma: Cellulase
    • Taxomyces: Taxol
    • Entomophaga: Biocontrol
    • Paecilomyces: Kills termites
  9. Fungal Diseases is also known as
    Mycoses
  10. Systemic mycoses:
    Deep within body
  11. Subcutaneous mycoses:
    Beneath the skin
  12. Cutaneous mycoses:
    Affect hair, skin, and nails
  13. Superficial mycoses:
    Localized, e.g., hair shafts
  14. Opportunistic mycoses:
    Caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi
  15. ___are plant-like protists Some are unicellular, some are multicellular
    Algae
  16. ___ requires water for reproduction and nutrient absorption
    Algae
  17. The body of Algae is called a
    Thallus
  18. Stems of algae are called
    Stipes
  19. Leaf-like structure in algae
    Blades
  20. Root-like structure in algae
    Holdfasts
  21. All species can reproduce ___
    Asexually
  22. Algae are ___
    Photoautotrophs
  23. All have ___ and some other colored pigment
    Chlorophyll
  24. Brown algae (kelp)
    Phaeophyta
  25. ___ has Cellulose and alginic acid cell walls
    Phaeophyta
  26. ___ has Chlorophyll a and c, xanthophylls
    Phaeophyta
  27. ___Store carbohydrates
    Phaeophyta
  28. ___ is Harvested for algin
    Phaeophyta
  29. ___ is Red algae
    Rhodophyta
  30. ___ has Chlorophyll a and d, phycobiliproteins
    Rhodophyta
  31. ___Store glucose polymer
    • Harvested for agar and carrageenan
    • Rhodophyta
  32. ___is Green algae
    Chlorophyta
  33. ___ has Chlorophyll a and b
    Chlorophyta
  34. ___Store glucose polymer and Gave rise to plants
    Chlorophyta
  35. ___ has Pectin and silica cell walls
    Diatoms
  36. ___ has Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthophylls
    Diatoms
  37. ___ Store oil
    Diatoms
  38. Fossilized ___formed oil
    Diatoms
  39. ___Produce domoic acid
    Diatoms
  40. ___has Cellulose in plasma membrane
    Dinoflagellates
  41. ___ has Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthins
    Dinoflagellates
  42. ___ Store starch
    Dinoflagellates
  43. Plankton Produces ___
    Oxygen
  44. Some Plankton produce toxins:___
    Gymnodinium breve Alexandrium
  45. Dinoflagellates Algal blooms ___
    Red tide
  46. Oomycota is a Water molds with Cellulose cell walls which Produce
    Zoospores
  47. Algae is Important in ___
    Aquatic food chain
  48. 80% of Earth O2 is produced by ___
    Planktonic algae
  49. Most of the world’s petroleum is formed from ___ & ___
    Diatoms and plankton
  50. Lichen is a combination of an ___ & ___
    Algae and a fungus (symbiosis)
  51. Three types of lichens:
    • Crustose
    • Foliose
    • Frutiose
  52. Protozoa are First ___
    Animal
  53. ___are unicellular, eukaryotic chemoheterotrophic organisms (protista)
    Protozoa
  54. Protozoa is Vegetative form is a
    Trophozoite
  55. Protozoa’s Asexual reproduction is by ___, ___ or ___
    • Fission, budding or schizogony
    • Protozoa Sexually reproduce by ___
    • Conjugation
  56. Only One Protozoa contains chlorophyll ie ___
    Euglena
  57. All Protozoa live in areas with a large supply of ___
    Water
  58. All protozoa contain a ___ and ___
    Vacuole and anal pore
  59. Medically Important Phyla of Protozoa
    • Archaezoa
    • Microspora
    • Amoebozoa
    • Apicomplexa
    • Ciliophora
    • Euglenozoa
  60. Characterstics of Archaezoa
    • No mitochondria
    • Multiple flagella
    • Giardia lamblia
    • Trichomonas vaginalis (no cyst stage)
  61. Characterstics of Microspora
    • No mitochondria
    • Nonmotile
    • Intracellular parasites
    • Nosema
  62. Characterstics of Amoebozoa
    • Move by pseudopods
    • Entamoeba
    • Acanthamoeba
  63. Characterstics of Apicomplexa
    • Nonmotile
    • Intracellular parasites
    • Complex life cycles
    • Plasmodium
    • Babesia
    • Cryptosporidium
    • Cyclospora
  64. Characterstics of Ciliates
    • Move by cilia
    • Complex cells
    • Balantidium coli is the only human parasite
  65. Characterstics of Euglenozoa
    Move by flagella
  66. Euglenoids are ___
    Photoautotrophs
  67. Hemoflagellates - Trypanosoma spp. causes ___
    • Sleeping sickness
    • Chagas’ disease
  68. ___ are parasitic animals that spend part or all of their lives in humans
    Helminths
  69. Most Helminths belong to two phylum:
    • Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
    • Nematoda (roundworms)
  70. Characteristics of Helminths
    • Reduced digestive system
    • Reduced nervous system
    • Reduced locomotion
    • Complex reproduction
  71. Life Cycle of Helminths - Monoecious (hermaphroditic)
    Male and female reproductive systems in one animal
  72. Life Cycle of Helminths - Dioecious
    • Separate male and female
    • Egg -> larva(e) -> adult
  73. Helminths (Parasitic Worms)
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
    • Class: Trematodes (flukes)
    • Class: Cestodes (tapeworms)
    • Phylum: Nematoda (roundworms)
  74. Tapeworm’s Head is called ___
    A scolex
  75. Tapeworm’s Body consists of
    Progottids
  76. Characterstics of Nematodes
    • Roundworms
    • Complete Digestive systems
    • Most Dioecious
    • Two catagories
    • Egg infective
    • Larvae infective
  77. Arthropods as Vectors
    • May transmit diseases (vectors)
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda (exoskeleton, jointed legs)
    • Class: Insecta (6 legs)
    • Lice, fleas, mosquitoes
    • Class: Arachnida (8 legs)
    • Mites and ticks
  78. Arthropods as Vectors
    • Mechanical transmission
    • Biological transmission
    • Microbe multiplies in vector

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