An approach to the study of mental structures and processes that uses the computer as a model for human thinking.
The memory system that codes information according to sound and holds about 7 (from 5-9) items for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal; also called working memory
The memory system with a virtually unlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a person's permanent or relatively permanent memories.
The type of declaritive memory that records events as they have been subjectively experienced.
The type of declaritive memory that stores general knowledge, or objective facts and information.
The subsystem within long-term memory that stores motor skills, habits, and simple classically conditioned responses; also called implicit memory.
Serial Position Effect
The finding that, for information learned in sequence, reall is better for the beginning adn ending items than ffor the middle items in the sequence.
An extremely vivid memory of the conditions surrounding one's first hearing the news of a surprising, shocking, or highly emotional event.
The relative inability of older children and adults to recall events from the first few years of life.
A loss of memory for experiences that occurred shortly before a loss of consciousness.
The inability to form long-term memories of events occurring after a brain injury or brain surgery, although memories formed before the trauma are usually intact and short-term memory is unaffected.
Nonsense words that sound more like words that real words are easier to remember.
A cause of forgetting that occurs because information or associations stored either before or after a given memory hinder the ability to remember it.
The oldest theory of forgetting, which holds that memories, if not used, fade with time and ultimately disappear altogether.
A cause of forgetting that occurs when information was never put into long-term memory.
Any disruption in the consoidation process that prevents a long-term memory from forming.
Practicing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without error.
Learning in one long practice session without rest periods.
Learning in short practice sessions with rest periods in between.
A theory of motivation suggesting that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of alertness and physical and mental activation.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A measure of weight relative to height.
BMI of more than 30
The physiological and psychological response to a condition that threatens or challenges a person and requires some form of adaptation or adjustment.
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
Holmes and Rahe's measure of stress, which ranks 43 life events from most to least stressful and assigns a point value to each.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
The predictable sequence of reactions (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages) that organisms show in response to stressors.
A person's characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
The unconcious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates on the pleasure principle; source of the libido.
In Freud's theory, the logical, rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle.
The moral system of thepersonality which consists of the conscience and the ego ideal.
Big Five Personality Traits (OCEAN)
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Index (MMPI)
The most extensively researched and widely used personality test, which is used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders; revised as MMPI-2
California Personality Inventory (CPI)
A highly regarded personality test developed especially for typical individuals aged 13 and older.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test consisting of drawings of ambiguous human situations, which the test taker describes; thought to reveal inner feelings, conflicts, and motives, which are projected onto the test materials.