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  1. Temperament/Goodness of Fit (Chess/Thomas)
    Goodness of Fit: nature and nurture, "fit" between nature and environment

    9 Temperament Traits: Activity Level (constant motion, move little or slowly), Regularity (predict of appetite and sleep, no schedule or routine), Approach/Withdrawal (new situation and strangers, distress or plunge in), Adaptability to change in routine (adaption to changes, inability to shift or flexible) Level of sensory threshold (amount of stimulation, no reaction/acceptance or intense awareness and non acceptance), pos/neg mood (fussy or content/accepting), intensity of response (enegry level, high level or quiet/low), distractability (concentrate or distraction), persistance/ attention span (pursue goals despite obstaceles or quit)

    3 personality types: easy (pos mood, regularity, low intensity, adaptable, 40%), difficult (irregular body function, intense, tend to withdraw, slow to adapt 10%), slow to warm up (low act level, tend to withdraw to new, slow, smewhat neg, 15%)

    About 35% of children don't fall into the category

    useful for children who are at the extremes
  2. Resilience (1970s) Ann Masten
    Researchers noticed that under advese circumstances (homeless, poverty, abuse) some children remained competent and thrived

    Masten defin: good outcomes in spite of serious threats to development

    Characteristics of resilent children: easy temperament, children who generate pos attention from caregivers, ability to tolerate frusration, cognitice competence, self-efficacy, control

    Relational Resilience: “Relationships are a primary source of one’s ability to be resilient in the face of personal hardships and trauma. relationships are a primary source of experience that strengthen the individual characteristics commonly associated with resilience”

    These healthy relationships promote “relational resilience” which is key for children in high risk situations (secure 55% for high risk)

    Toxic Stress: neg impacts brain structure, 3 levels: positive, tolerable (manageable with good caregiver), toxic (caregiver is threat and broken)

    Project Competence: (205kids) 3approaches to helping children: risk focused (reduce risk, make environment safer), asset focused (increase resources to learn and thrive), process focused (foster relationships like caring adults)
  3. Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
    Trust v. Mistrust: infants, trust others to care for basic needs, KSA: mother/primary caregiver, Virtue: hope

    Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: toddlers, learn to dress themselves and be autonomous, KSA: parents/ other caregivers, Virtue: willpower

    Initiative vs. Guilt: preschoolers: act grown up and accept responsibility beyond capacity, KSA: family, virtue: purpose

    industry vs. inferiority: school-age, social and acadmemic skills, KSA: teachers, peers, family, Virtue: competency

    identity vs. identity confusion: adolensence, "Who am i" crossroad for maturity, KSA: society of peers, virtue: fidelity

    intimacy vs. isolation: young adulthood, friendship, love and companionship, KSA: lovers, spouse, Virtue: love

    generativity vs. stagnation: productive in work and raising families, lasting contribution to future generations, KSA: spouse, children, cultural norms, Virtue: caring

    integrity vs. despair: old age, view life as meaningful or disappointment, NO KSA, more on self, virtue: wisdom
  4. Parenting Styles
    Maccoby and Martin (1983): two dimensions (demanding vs. undemanding) and (responsive vs. unresponsive) demand= structure, responsiveness= warmth

    • authoritarian: low res, high demand, shape and control, value obediance/authority, harsh, strict gender
    • children: do well in school at young age, anxious, withdrawn, poor reaction to frustration

    • authoritative: high resp, high demand, rational, affirming and set standards, admit when wrong
    • children: self-confident, good emotional regulation

    • permissive: high resp, low demand, allow child to regulate own activities, avoid control, accept childs desires, do not expect them to things themselves
    • children: poor emotion regulation, rebellious and defiant, antisocial behavior

    neglectful: low and low

    traditional: high wamth, high demand than authoritative, more emphasis on interdependence, less democratic
  5. Authoriitative Parenting (best)
    it works best and can be found with help from Erikson's stages (autonomyy, initiative, industry, identity) through the tasks and virtues

    • Rossman's Research on Household Tasks: longiudinal, parents houd require household tasks for chidren beginning at age 3-4,
    • outcome variables: edu, career path, family involvment, alcoho/drug use,
    • promote: sensiiivty to the needs of others, develoment of responsibility, good habits, life skills

    • Mothers: teaching and instructing, encourage to stick to activity
    • Fathers: rough and tumble, change quickly, fathers follow, kids: increase self control, accepted by peers.
  6. Discipline: Positive Approach (Skinner)
    • reinforcement: consequience of an act that increases the probability that the act will occur again
    • punisher: conseauence of an act that will decrease the probability that the act will occur again

    • extrinsic: reinforcement is geerated externally (stuff, parents love and approval)
    • intrinsic: reinforcemnt is generated internally (pride, good feeling)

    • imitation and modeling
    • naural and logical consequences
    • induction: use of reason in disciplinary confrontations, interalization of values, generalizations of specific rules to larger class of behaviors

    • Skinner: behaviorist, worked with animals
    • operant learning theory: learning depends on external stimuli, reinforcers most effective if done imediately after behavior
  7. Discipline: Negative Approach
    • primary goal of children: belongingness and connection
    • secondary goal of children: goals of misbehavior to gain attention, power, goal of reverng, disply of inadequacy

    • primary goals of parent: create an atmospehere of physchological safety, building self-esteem
    • misbehavior: simply natural curiosity or inability of control of impulses

    purpose of disciple: compliance, socialization, regulation, orientation, modification, protection,
  8. overindulgent parenting
    overparenting: parents who consistently do too much for their children preven thier children from learning the life skills that they need to be successful adults

    overindulgence: too much, over-nurturing, soft secure

    Permissive parenting, but can also be negelcful or authoritarian
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