Multiple contingencies (combinations of the above reinforcers)
What is a primary reinforcer?
Reinforcers that do not depend on past experience due to their survival value: do not require a learning history.
Example: food, water, air, warmth, or social contact
Strengths/Advantages to primary reinforcers
-doesn't depend on past experiences
-very powerful especially given a deprivation state
Limitations of primary reinforcers
-only effective given a deprivation state
-susceptible to satiation
-not a natural reinforcer for speech language pathology (doesn't occur in real life)
-messy, interrupts the training sequence
-health concerns-always get clearance from parent
What are the advantages of social reinforcement?
-not susceptible to satiation
-more natural for speech language behaviors
-may promote generalization
-does not interrupt sequence of training
What are the disadvantages of social reinforcement?
-Weakest in certain populations/histories like autism, children of abuse
What is a conditioned generalized reinforcer?
Conditioned: depends on previous learning history
Generalized: does not depend on a specific motivation/deprivation.
Reinforcer: increases response when delivered contingently.
Reinforcers that do not depend upon a particular motivation because their history is generalized across or associated with a variety of other reinforcers. (variety refers to back up menu of reinforcers)
Strengths/Advantages of a conditioned generalized reinforcer
-does not depend on single state of deprivation
-easy to administer
-do not interrupt the training sequence
-may be able to record a large # of responses for a specific reinforcement
What are the limitations/disadvantages of conditional generalized reinforcers?
-Requires a variety of reinforcers which may be expensive to maintain.
Caution: should be paired with social reinforcers and thinned out gradually.
What are the types of informative feedback?
-Specific verbal feedback
A type of informative feedback that is information regarding physiological performance.
Example: electromyography, galvanic skin response, nasometer & or Seescape
Define Specific Verbal Feedback
-detailed verbal information regarding performance regarding articulatory placement, production of language structures, fluent production, easy onset, etc.
Define Visual information
-illustrating success or progress graphically: usually more relevant to overall performance than to specific responses
Example: sports games, balloon games, racetracks for children; simple graphing of progrsesing for adults.
What are high-probability behaviors?
A behavior of high probability is made available contingent on the occurrence of a low probability behavior.
Example: would involve access to puzzle/listening to music following production of a specificed # of correct responses.
In continuous reinforcement...
Every correct response is reinforced.
Strength: can generate a very high rate of response quickly.
Limitation: very susceptible to extinction (and satiation when primary reinforcers are used)
In intermittent reinforcement: FIXED RATIO
A predetermined number of correct responses is required for a reinforcer.
For example: FR3 means that every 3rd correct response is followed by a reinforcer.
-Can gradually generate more responses with the same amount of reinforcement by increasing the ratio.
-Generates an "all or none" cyclical response pattern-the subject is either working very hard or not at all.
-Similar to "piecework" in which workers are paid for a specific # of "pieces" produced.
-Ratio strain can occur if the ratio is increased or "stretched" too far, too fast.
In intermittent reinforcement: VARIABLE RATIO
The # of correct responses to earn a reinforcer varies around a specified average.
For example: if reinforcement follows 1st, 7th, 3rd, 4th, 10th, 8th responses=30 responses that resulted in 6 reinforcers-30 responses/6 reinforcers=VR6
-More powerful than fixed ratio for developing sustaining (vs. creating/establishing) behaviors
-Better for developing consistent high rate of responding.
In intermittent reinforcement: FIXED INTERVAL
Reinforcement is made available for the first correct response following a specified duration of time.
-Rate of response increases as the interval passes; generates a "scalloped" response pattern.
-does not encourage consistent responding
-responding is predictably associted with "anticipated" end of interval.
For example: FI3 would require 3 minutes to pass, then the next correct response would be reinforced.
In intermittent reinforcement: VARIABLE INTERVAL
Reinforcement is made available for the first correct response following variable durations of time that vary around a specified average.
For example: VI3 would mean that the first correct response that followed durations that all vary but average around 3 minutes in duration would be reinforced.
Differential Reinforcement of Other behaviors
"Catching them being good" and reinforcing it.
-reinforcing any other behavior than the undesirable behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of an Alternative (better) behavior
For example: Reaching and vocalizing vs throwing a tantrum
Differential Reinforcement of an Incompatible Behavior
Example: fluency- stuttering. By reinforcing fluency, and fluency then increasing, stuttering decreases.
Increase in aversive behavior after a mild aversive punishment.