Clincial Methods Test 2 Chapter 8

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dgreen8
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Clincial Methods Test 2 Chapter 8
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2011-11-03 14:51:04
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Clincial Methods Test 2 Chapter 8
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  1. What are the dynamics involved in positive reinforcement?
    inadvertent effects of attention to undesirable behaviors.
  2. What are the dynamics involved in negative reinforcement?
    inadvertently reinforcing undesirable behaviors through escape.
  3. What are the dynamics involved in automatic self-reinforcement?
    behaviors that are self-reinforcing, self stimulating, rocking etc.
  4. What is the procedural definition of extinction?
    Termininating the reinforcer for a response which results in a decreased rate of that response. (McL)
  5. What are the 4 factors that influence extinction?
    • 1. Reinforcement schedule prior to extinction.
    • 2. Amount of reinforcement earned in the past
    • 3. Duration of time for which the response has been previoulsy reinforced
    • 4. Whether extinction has occurred previously.
  6. What other procedure will accelerate extinction of an undesirable behavior (when combined with extinction)
    Combining reinforcement for other behaviors may accelerate extinction of another behavior.
  7. Definition Punishment-
    Events that when made contigent upon a response will decrease the future probability of that response. (McL)
  8. What are the 2 types of Punishment?
    Type I and II.
  9. Type I punishment is an ________ stimuli?
    Aversive
  10. Type I punishment definition
    Response contingent presentation of stimulus events that result in a decrease in the probablility of that response. (McL)
  11. Type I punishment: If effective, the stimulus event is considered "averisive" or "noxious"

    T or F
    True
  12. Type II punishment is a __________ stimuli.
    reinforcing
  13. Type II punishment definition:
    response contingent withdrawl of a stimulus event that results in a decrease in the probability of that response.
  14. For type II punishment to be effective the stimulus is considered to be ______________.
    "reinforcing"
  15. Time out defined
    response contingent loss of opportunity to obtain reinforcers which result in a decrease in that response. (McL)
  16. What are the different types of Time Out?
    • 1. isolation
    • 2. Exclusion to
    • 3. Non exclusion to
  17. What variables must be identified to make time out effective?
    Must analyze the sources of reinforcement to determine if time-out actually represents loss of opportunity for reinforcement versus escape from an aversive situation.
  18. Response Cost
    response contingent loss of reinforcers which results in a decrease in that response. (McL)
  19. What are the 2 types of Response Cost?
    • 1. Earn and Lose
    • 2. Lose
  20. In __________ , reinforcers are delivered for correct responses and removed for incorrect responses.
    Earn and Lose
  21. In _______ given an initial amount of reinforcers, a reinforcer is removed for each incorrect response.
    Lose only
  22. When using Response Cost the level of correct responses must be __________ to earn or retain more reinforcers than were lost.
    sufficient
  23. Differential Reinforcement
    simultaneously increasing one behavior and decreasing another by reinforcing one and not the other.
  24. What does DRO stand for?
    Differential Reinforcement of other behavior.
  25. What does DRO specify?
    It specifies which behavior will not be reinforced- any other behaviors will be reinforced
  26. What does DRI stand for?
    Differential Reinforcemt of Incompatible Behavior?
  27. What does DRI identify?
    • -identifies a behavior that can not occur simultaneously with the behavior targeted for reduction.
    • - behaviors are said to be "mutually exclusive" (fluent and disfluent cannot occur together)
  28. What does DRA stand for?
    Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior.
  29. Define DRA
    reinforcement of a different behavior that serves the same purpose but is more appropriate or acceptable.
  30. What is the negative side effects of averisive methods?
    (side effects to watch for)
    • 1. Emotional Reactions
    • 2. Aggression
    • 3. Paradoxical Effect (w/mild aversive events- "nagging")
  31. What are the 2 broad categories in a reinforcement schedule?
    Continuous and intermittent
  32. __________ makes a behavior more resistant to extinction?
    intermittent
  33. Greater amounts of reinforcements earned in the past make a behavior more resistant to _____________.
    extinction
  34. ___________ history of reinforcement makes a behavior more resistant to extinction.
    longer
  35. Behaviors that have never been extinguished are ______ resistant to extinction.
    most
  36. Combining reinforement for other behaviors may __________ extinction of another behavior.
    accelerate
  37. simultaneously increasing one behavior and decreasing another by reinforcing one and not the other is
    Differential Reinforcement
  38. Specifies which behavior will NOT be reinforced - any other behaviors will be reinforced.
    DRO (Differential Reinforcement of other Behavior)
  39. Identifies a behavior that can not occur simultaneously with the behavior targeted for reduction.
    DRI (differential reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior)
  40. In which indirect methof of response reduction would behaviors be said to be "mutually exclusive"
    DRI (differential reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior)
  41. reinforcement of a different behavior that serves the same purpose but is more appropriate or acceptable.
    DRA (Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior.)

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