Rise of the West 2 Roman Empire

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  1. Marcus Antonius
    • Marc Antony, who managed Caesar’s vast fortune, was a strong
    • general. He was a part of the triumvirate with Lepidus and Octavian, in which
    • his job was to govern Egypt. Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted
    • into civil war, the final war of the Roman Republic. His career and defeat are
    • significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire.
  2. Actium
    • Actium is a city off the western coast of Greece. The war
    • between Antony and Octavian was fought there.
  3. Octavia
    • Octavia was Octavian’s sister. Because she was married to
    • Antony, peace was finally negotiated and secured by Antony and Octavian. She
    • became pregnant but Antony left Octavia and traveled to Egypt where he met
    • Cleopatra. The alliance bound through marriage between Octavian and Antony was
    • dissolved.
  4. Augustus
    • Augustus, whose real name is Octavian, successfully
    • established a form of government that let him rule without offending the
    • traditions of conservative Romans. This delicate balance between his leadership
    • style and the old ways earned him widespread popularity. He referred to himself
    • as princeps, or the “first citizen”. The government he established was in turn
    • called the principate, after the first citizen upon whom everyone depended.
  5. Lepidus
  6. Lepidus
    • was one of Caesar’s loyal governors and generals who later became a part of the
    • triumvirate. He was in control of North Africa but was later forced into
    • retirement by Octavian.
  7. Antonius Pius
    • Antonius
    • Pius was Roman Emperor and was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty and the
    • Aurelii. He compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian.
  8. Commodus
    • Commodus was the son of Marcus Aurelius. He brought the age
    • of the Five Good Emperors and the Pax Romana to an ignoble end through his
    • cruel reign. Commodus seems to have been a simpleminded man who loved the
    • games. He even shocked Rome by fighting in the arena as a gladiator. With
    • Commodus’s murder, peace ended in Rome in a fresh outbreak of civil war.
  9. Trajan
  10. Trajan
    • was Roman Emperor, the second of the Five Good Emperors. As a civilian
    • administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program
    • which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as
    • Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column
  11. Marcus Aurelius
    • Marcus
    • represented the heighted expression of a ruler whose political life was shaped
    • by moral philosophy. He was highly educated in law, poetry, and philosophy, but
    • the latter was his greatest love. When he became emperor, he continued to act
    • based on the self-containment embodied in Stoic principles. He cautioned that
    • those in power should remain humble.
  12. Hadrian
    • Hadrian,
    • one of the soldier emperors, spent twelve of his twenty one ruling years traveling
    • around the provinces, establishing fortifications and checking on provincial
    • administration. In other words, he established definite borders
  13. Nero
    • Nero marked the most excessive of the murderers, for he
    • killed many of his family members, mostly using his favorite means, poison. Nero
    • was so despised. There were no more members of Augustus’s family left to claim
    • the succession after his death, so the armies and the Praetorian Guard fought
    • for the imperial throne.
  14. Claudius
  15. Claudius was a retiring, neglected relative of Augustus.
    • Found by the guard, Claudius was declared emperor. Claudius was regarded by
    • many Romans as an imbecile subject to the whims of his wives, but the power of
    • the connection to the family of Augustus prevailed to solidify his rule. His
    • ruling was calm and prosperous.
  16. caligula
    • Caligula was an heir in the Augustus dynasty. He was an
    • irrational, if not insane, ruler who wanted to be worshiped as a god. He was
    • assassinated by the Praetorian Guard.
  17. Tiberius
    • Tiberius was Augustus’s stepson. He rapidly succumbed to all
    • the vicious passions which he had for a long time. He made himself a private
    • sporting house where sexual extravagances were practiced for his secret
    • pleasure and in his isolation, his paranoia grew. He even executed people for
    • insulting his stepfather’s memory if they carried a coin bearing Augustus’s
    • imagine into a lavatory or brothel.
  18. Vespasian
    • Vespasian took power in Rome and restored some order to the
    • empire. His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of
    • the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the successful campaign against Judaea, and several
    • ambitious construction projects, such as the Colosseum.
  19. Domitian
    • Domitian was Vespasian’s son and emperor
    • during the Roman Empire. As emperor, Domitian
    • strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the border
    • defenses of the empire, and initiated a massive building program to restore the
    • damaged city of Rome.
  20. Titus
    • Titus
    • was Roman Emperor and a member of the Flavian dynasty. Titus succeeded his
    • father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come
    • to the throne after his own father. Under the rule of his father, Titus gained
    • notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying
    • on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite
    • concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death
    • of Vespasian and was considered a good emperor. As emperor, he is best known
    • for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering
    • caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption and a fire in Rome.
  21. Cleopatra VII
    • Cleopatra VII was the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. She was
    • a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a family of Greek origin that ruled Egypt
    • after Alexander the Great's death during the Hellenistic period. Cleopatra
    • learned to speak Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an
    • Egyptian goddess, Isis. Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father and
    • later with her brothers but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she
    • consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the
    • throne. To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her
    • legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her
    • story in literature and other media.
  22. Constantine I
    • Constantine was Caesar’s son. He defeated his rivals to
    • assume sole control of the empire. Constantine built a new urban center on the
    • site of the old Greek city state of Byzantium, which would later be called Constantinople.
    • It was easily defended and located along the rich eastern trade routes.
  23. Tetrarchy
    • Tetrarchy is a type of government organized by Diocletian.
    • It is rule by four men
  24. Constanople
    • Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman,
    • Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages,
    • Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.
  25. Diocletian
    • Diocletian
    • was a general who rose from the ranks to wear the imperial purple. He assumed
    • the title “lord” and demanded that his subjects worshiped him as a living god.
    • The change in title marked the formal end of the principate founded by
    • Augustus- from then on, emperors were no longer called first citizens.
    • Diocletian has a shrewd, practical side and used his considerable
    • administrative talents to address the problems plaguing the empire.
  26. Theodosius I
    • Theodosius
    • I was Roman Emperor. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the
    • eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. He issued decrees that effectively
    • made Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire. He defeated
    • the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius and fostered the destruction of some
    • prominent pagan temples
  27. Goths
    • The Goths were an East Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin
    • who played an important role in the history of the Roman Empire after they
    • appeared on its lower Danube frontier in the 3rd century. Throughout their
    • history, the Goths founded several powerful kingdoms in Europe, and played the
    • major role in the defeat of the Huns and the initiation of the Reconquista.
  28. Vandals
    • The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the
    • late Roman Empire during the 5th century. The Vandals under King Genseric established
    • a kingdom. In 455, they sacked the city of Rome. Their kingdom collapsed in the
    • Vandalic War. The reputation of the Vandals among Renaissance and Early Modern
    • writers was that of the barbarian people which sacked and looted Rome.
  29. Huns
    • Huns were a group of nomadic people who migrated into Europe where they
    • established the vast Hunnic Empire there. The Huns may have stimulated the
    • Great Migration, a contributing factor in the collapse of the Western Roman
    • Empire.
  30. Franks
    • Franks were a West Germanic tribal confederation living north and east of the
    • Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman
    • territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul.
  31. Anglo Saxons
    • Anglo-Saxon
    • is a term used by historians to designate the Germanic tribes who invaded the south
    • and east of Great Britain. The Anglo-Saxon Era denotes the period of English
    • history. The term is also used for the language now called Old English, spoken
    • and written by the Anglo-Saxons and their descendants in much of what is now
    • England and some of southeastern Scotland.
  32. Seneca
    • Seneca was a Stoic philosopher. Seneca wrote that “the least
    • of your slaves holds over you the power of life or death.” This coincided with
    • the idea that Romans often feared their slaves.
  33. Pharisees
    • Pharisees emphasized Jewish purity laws. They refused all compromise with the
    • Hellenized world and adhered strictly to dietary rules and rituals to reinforce
    • their seperateness from all non-Jews. However, the Pharisees did accept new
    • ideas such as the resurrection of the just and the existence of angels. They
    • believed Judaism centered on the private observances of Jews all over the Roman
    • world.
  34. martyrs
    • A martyr are holy people in which their deaths concluded
    • that God had invested their bodies with the power to withstand torture. People
    • believed that martyrs’ remains contained sacred power and saved and venerated
    • their bones, or relics.
  35. jesus
    • During the reign of Augustus, a child named Jesus was born
    • in Bethlehem. He was the son of Mary and Joseph. He excelled in his religious
    • studies. He appealed to the poor. He spoke of a heavenly kingdom rather than a
    • violent revolution and attracted a large following of those who longed for a
    • better life. For many, Jesus was the awaited Messiah who would save and
    • transform the world. His message was strikingly new and changed the course of
    • Western civilization.
  36. Paul (Saul of Tarsus)
    • Paul was a Hellenized Jew and a Roman citizen who had at
    • first harassed Christians. After he experienced a vision of the risen Jesus, he
    • converted and took up the mission of the brining the Christian message beyond
    • the particularity of the Jewish communities to the wider world of the Roman
    • Empire and beyond.
  37. Peter
    • apostle Peter was willing to preach to Gentiles, non-Jews. Peter believed they
    • would not have to be circumcised or keep all the Jewish festivals, but they
    • would have to follow the dietary restrictions.
  38. Hillel
    • Hillel, along with his followers, reached a compromise with
    • the authority of Rome that let Jews maintain an identity within the empire, and
    • future rabbis would study scripture and interpret the ways Jews should act
    • while living among Gentiles.
  39. Sadducees
    • Sadduccees largely compromised members of priestly families. They emphasized
    • Jewish worship at the temple of Jerusalem, which they saw as the cult center of
    • the Israelites. They were religious conservatives who rejected any new ideas
    • that they did not find in the Torah.
  40. Essenes

    The Essenes was a fourth group that emerged within the Roman
    world. They moved to separate communities and attempted to live pure lives,
    seemingly alienating themselves from the Temple cult. They have drawn much
    scholarly attention because they probably authored one of the most exciting
    archaeological finds in biblical history.
    • The Essenes was a fourth group that emerged within the Roman
    • world. They moved to separate communities and attempted to live pure lives,
    • seemingly alienating themselves from the Temple cult. They have drawn much
    • scholarly attention because they probably authored one of the most exciting
    • archaeological finds in biblical history.
  41. Essenes
    • The Essenes was a fourth group that emerged within the Roman
    • world. They moved to separate communities and attempted to live pure lives,
    • seemingly alienating themselves from the Temple cult. They have drawn much
    • scholarly attention because they probably authored one of the most exciting
    • archaeological finds in biblical history.
  42. Zealots
    • The Zealots were a group in Palestine that took a different
    • approach from the Pharisees. The Zealots looked back to the successful revolt
    • of the Maccabees against Seleucid rule and urged political revolt against Roman
    • rule as a way to restore Isreal to an independent state.
  43. Melania
    • Melania longed to follow a life of ascetic chastity like
    • that of the earlier holy women, but as daughter of Rome, she was expected to
    • bear children. Her husband agreed that after she bears two children, they could
    • live chastely. As a symbol of her commitment to her husband, she began to wear
    • tough wool under the smooth silk clothing of the upper class, which represented
    • her return to republican simplicity, but rebellion by her family.
  44. Augustine
    • When the Western Roman Empire was starting to disintegrate,
    • Augustine developed the concept of the Church as a spiritual City of God,
    • distinct from the material Earthly City. His thoughts profoundly influenced the
    • medieval worldview. Augustine's City of God was closely identified with the church,
    • the community that worshipped God.
  45. Chancedon
    • Chalcedon was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia. Chalcedon suffered
    • somewhat from its proximity to the new imperial capital at Constantinople.
    • First the Byzantines and later the Ottoman Turks used it as a quarry for
    • building materials for Constantinople's monumental structures.
  46. Donatists
    • The Donatists were members of a church not in communion
    • with the churches of the Catholic tradition. The Donatists were rigorists,
    • holding that the church must be a church of "saints," not
    • "sinners," and that sacraments, such as baptism, administered by
    • traditores were invalid.
  47. Arians
    • Arians are the followers of Arianism, which is the
    • theological teaching attributed to Arius, a Christian presbyter from
    • Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the entities of the Trinity and
    • the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the
    • Father. Arian
    • to refer to those groups that see themselves as worshiping Jesus Christ or
    • respecting his teachings, but do not hold to the Nicene creed.
  48. Monasticism
    • Monasticism is a religious way of life characterized by the
    • practice of renouncing worldly pursuits to fully devote one's self to spiritual
    • work. In the Christian tradition, males pursuing a monastic life are usually
    • called monks or brethren (brothers), and if females nuns or sisters.
  49. Anthony of Egypt
    • Anthony
    • was a Christian saint from Egypt, a prominent leader among the Desert Fathers.
    • The biography of his life helped to spread the concept of monasticism. He is
    • often erroneously considered the first monk, but there were many ascetics
    • before him. Anthony was, however, the first known ascetic going into the
    • wilderness, a geographical shift that seems to have contributed to his renown.
  50. Pagans
    • Pagans are those who clung to traditional Roman religious
    • beliefs instead of converting to Christianity. This term came from pagani, a
    • derogatory term for backward peasants. It etymology shows how Christianity
    • spread first from urban centers.
  51. Patrick
    • Patrick was a Romano British Christian who was kidnapped by
    • Irish raiders and enslaved in Ireland. He later escaped to Britain, where he
    • became a bishop. However, he decided his calling was to return to Ireland to
    • convert the pagan Irish. He established monasteries in Ireland and he
    • eventually became known as the founder of Irish Christianity by the Irish.
  52. Jerusalem
    • Jerusalem is the capital of Israel. Jerusalem is considered
    • the third holiest city Among Muslims of Islam's earliest era it was referred to
    • City of the Temple which was restricted to the Temple Mount.
  53. Vulgate
    • The Vulgate is a translation of the Bible. The Vulgate
    • became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible in
    • the Roman Catholic Church.
  54. Nicaea
    • The Council of Nicaea is where Constantine presided over
    • the bishops he had summoned to resolve Arius’s dispute over the nature of
    • Christ.
  55. Edict of Milan
    • Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine I and Licinius that
    • proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. The letter was issued
    • shortly after the conclusion of the Diocletianic Persecution.
  56. Livy
    • Titus Livius was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the
    • Roman people. Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the
    • City," covered the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before
    • the traditional foundation through the reign of Augustus.
  57. Tactitus
    • Tacitus
    • was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of
    • his two major works examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius,
    • Claudius, Nero and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These
    • two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus. Tacitus
    • is generally considered one of the greatest Roman historians.
  58. Suetonius
    • Suetonius was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian
    • order in the early Imperial era. His most important surviving work is a set of
    • biographies of twelve successive Roman rulers. Other works by Suetonius concern
    • the daily life of Rome, politics, oratory, and the lives of famous writers,
    • including poets, historians, and grammarians. A few of these books have
    • partially survived, but many have been lost.
  59. Colosseum
    • The Colosseum is an elliptical amphitheater in the center of
    • the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is
    • considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman
    • engineering.
  60. Ovid
    • Ovid was a Roman poet who is best known as the author of the
    • three major collections of erotic poetry: Heroides, Amores, and Ars Amatoria.
    • He is also well known for the Roman calendar. He is considered a master of the
    • elegiac couplet.
  61. Virgil
    • Virgil
    • was a classical Roman poet. Virgil came to be regarded as one of Rome's
    • greatest poets and his work has influenced Western literature.
  62. Sidonius
    • Sidonius was a Roman nobleman. He received a classical Roman
    • education and wrote letters to his friends that brimmed with stories of the
    • gracious life of a provincial Roman. In his letters, he described a lifestyle
    • blessed by culture, ease and luxury, but also turmoil. He defended the walls of
    • his town against the invading Visigoths and was imprisoned by the attackers.
    • Later, his captors released him, and he lived as a bishop.
  63. Galen
    • Galen was a physician that popularized views that have prevailed even into modern
    • times. He embraced the notion of moderation and believed that good health
    • resulted from a balance among the bodily fluids. His ideas may not have
    • improved peoples health, but they formed the subsequent basis for medical
    • treatment.
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Rise of the West 2 Roman Empire
2011-11-03 20:16:31
Rise West Roman Empire

Rise of the West 2 Roman Empire
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