Rise of the West 2 Heroic Monastic Age

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Rise of the West 2 Heroic Monastic Age
2011-11-03 19:57:21
Rise West Heroic Monastic Age

Rise of the West 2 Heroic Monastic Age
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  1. Authr
    • Arthur was a British war chief who won a great victory at
    • the Battle of Badon over the Anglo- Saxons. This victory stemmed the tide of
    • the invasions and the deeds of Arthur were remembered in western Celtic lands
    • and formed the basis for the Arthurian romances.

    • Pepin the Short-
    • Pepin conquered the Lombards and northern Italy came under the rule of the
    • Frankish Carolingians. When the Byzantines demanded tat he return the Italian
    • conquests to them, Pepin refused and said that he fought his war for St. Peter,
    • so Peter would hand over the conquests. The pope ruled then ruled in central
    • Italy as an independent monarch and the “Donation of Pepin” marked the
    • beginning of the Papal States.
  2. Charles Martel
    • Charles Martel was a Frankish military and political leader,
    • who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian. He was offered the
    • title of Consul by the Pope, but he refused. He is remembered for winning the
    • Battle of Tours and is considered to be a founding figure of the Middle Ages,
    • often credited with a seminal role in the development of feudalism and knighthood.
  3. Clovis
    • Clovis was the first King of the Franks to unite all the
    • Frankish tribes under one ruler. He was also the first Catholic King to rule
    • over Gaul (France). He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty
    • which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.
  4. Justinian
    • Justinian was Byzantine Emperor. During his reign, Justinian
    • sought to revive the Empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of
    • the classical Roman Empire.
  5. Theodora
    • Theodora was empress of the Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the
    • wife of Emperor Justinian I. Like her husband, she is a saint in the Orthodox
    • Church. Theodora is perhaps the most influential and powerful woman in the
    • Roman Empire's history.
  6. Theodoric
    • Theodoric the Great was king of the Ostrogoths and a viceroy
    • of the Eastern Roman Empire. He became a hero of Germanic legend.
  7. Lombards
    • The Lombards were a Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin. They
    • conquered Byzantine Italy. Their legacy is apparent in the regional appellation
    • Lombardy and the term Lombard banking, after the many Lombard bankers,
    • money-lenders, and pawn-brokers who operated in Western Europe during the
    • Middle Ages.
  8. Bulgars
    • The Bulgars are a Turko- Mongolian people who came out of
    • the steppes of Russia and built a powerful kingdom.
  9. Anglo Saxons
    • They
    • were the Germanic tribes who invaded the south and east of Great Britain. They
    • were pagan tribes who restored paganism to parts of the nominally Christian
    • empire.
  10. Comitatus
    • This means there is no absolute ruler. The warrior elite are
    • continually consulted in the decisions made for the whole clan.
  11. Wergeld
    • In Anglo-Saxon and Germanic law, a price set upon a person's
    • life on the basis of rank and paid as compensation by the family of a slayer to
    • the kindred or lord of a slain person to free the culprit of further punishment
    • or obligation and to prevent a blood feud.
  12. Franks
    • The Franks were a West Germanic tribal confederation. Some
    • Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in
    • Gaul.
  13. Muhammad
    • Muhammad
    • was a merchant and married a wealthy business woman. He earned a reputation for
    • being a good and honest man. He began to have visions, one of which he was told
    • to be apostle to his people. These revelations were recorded and collected and
    • became the book of inspired scripture of the new religion.
  14. Ali
    • Ali
    • was the prophet’s son in low and cousin. He became the caliph. He promoted the
    • idea of equality for all believers, rather than the privileged statys for Arabs
    • who had initially spread the prophet’s message.
  15. Qur'an
    • the Koran was the scripture of the new religion created by
    • Muhammad. It contains his visions and revelations. Muslims believe the Koran
    • represents the word of god. Many of the faithful memorize and recite the entire
    • Koran.
  16. Shi'a
    • Shia Islam is the second largest denomination of Islam. The
    • followers of Shia Islam are called Shi'ites or Shias. They continue to believe
    • that the Islamic world should be ruled by imams, men descended from Ali who act
    • as true spiritual heads of the community.
  17. Sunni
    • Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Islam is
    • sometimes referred to as the orthodox version of the religion. The word
    • "Sunni" comes from the term Sunnah which refers to the sayings and
    • actions of Muhammad that are recorded in hadiths (collections of narrations
    • regarding Muhammad).
  18. Hijira/ hegira
    • The flight in which Muslims make from Mecca to Medina is
    • known as hijira. It is the turning point in the acceptance of the new religion.
  19. Boethius
    • Boethius was a high official in Theodoric’s court. He was a
    • man of great education and translated works of Aristotle from Greek to Latin.
    • These translations became the basis for the study of logic for centuries.
  20. Leo III
    • Leo
    • III was the Byzantine emperor. He ordered all icons destroyed and intended for
    • his decree to apply to all of Christendom.
  21. Iconoclasts
    • iconoclasts is icon breaking. It is the controversy that
    • raged for a century in the east, during which time many mosaics in
    • Constantinople and Asia Minor were destroyed.
  22. Gregory II
    • Gregory II was a Pope who defied Leo’s edict. The tensions
    • resulting from this struggle strained relations between the eastern and western
    • churches even farther.
  23. Mecca
    • Mecca is an area in Arabia. Mecca housed an important pagan
    • shine, which drew Bedoiuns and other Arabs to gather in peace for trade.
  24. Medina
    • Medina means the city. This is where the Muslims fled to
    • from Mecca with Muhammad, the flight known as hijra.
  25. Benedict of Nursia
    • The Benefict of Nursia was the most influential founder of
    • communal monasticism. He created the Benedict’s Rule which required that people
    • spend a balanced day divided into work and prayer, with moderate and regular
    • meals.
  26. Scholastica
    • Scholastica is Benedict of Nursia’s twin sister. She
    • shared his calling and founded monasteries for women.
  27. Gregory the Great
    • He dramatically forwarded the case for papl supremacy. He
    • defined the role of pope in broad terms. He took over the day to day
    • administration of Rome, reorganizing estates and managing them in such a way as
    • to generate extra revenue to feed the poor.
  28. Whitby
    • Whitby is the place where the Anglo Saxon king called a
    • council to resolve a discrepancy. Here the monks agreed on the primacy of the
    • apostle Peter and Christianity prevailed throughout Europe.
  29. Khadijah
    • Kadijah was wealthy widow and businesswoman who married
    • Muhammad. When Muhammad began to speak of his visions, his wife Khadijah became
    • his first covert.
  30. Caliph
    • Caliph means successor to the Prophet. This name is given to Muslim rulers who
    • combined political authority with religious power
  31. Hagia Sophia
    • Hagia Sophia is one of the greatest surviving examples of
    • Byzantine architecture. Of great artistic value was its decorated interior with
    • mosaics and marble pillars and coverings. The temple itself was so richly and
    • artistically decorated.
  32. Bede
    • Bede was a well-known as an author and scholar. His most
    • famous work, The Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the
    • title "The Father of English History". He was a skilled linguist and
    • translator, and his work with the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church
    • Fathers contributed significantly to English Christianity, making the writings
    • much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons.