Microbiology: ch 14, 15,16, and 17 study guide

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Microbiology: ch 14, 15,16, and 17 study guide
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  1. First Line Of Defense
    This is an Innate Non-Specific Immunity, meaning you are born with it and it is not a defense against anything in particular. It consists of three barriers: Anatomical, Chemical, and Genetic. These barriers are the first line of defenses mechanisms against foreign microbes.
  2. First Line Of Defense: Anatomical Barriers
    This would include: SKIN: The outermost layer, or epidermis, hair folicles, and skin glands. MUCOUS MEMBRANES: The digestive, urinary, respiratory, and the eyes.
  3. First Line of Defense: Chemical Barriers
    This would include things produced by the body: Sebaceous secretions, eyelid glands, tears and saliva which are contain lysozyme, an enzyme that targets peptidoglycan in cell walls, and acidic pH that is in sweat, the stomach, skin, semen, and the vagina
  4. First Line Of Defense: Genetic Barrier
    This is a different level of sensitivity and resistance to infectious agents such as : malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, and fungal infections
  5. Second Line of Defense
    The second line of defens is a cellular and chemical system thet comes immediatly into play if infectious agentsmake it past the first line of defense. Its methods of action include the infallmatory response, interference, phagocytosis, and complement. It is innate and non specific
  6. Immunology
    The study of the development of the resistance to infectious agents by the body. In the body, the immune system is responsible for 1.) Surveillance of the body 2.) Recognition of foreign material 3.) Destruction of foreign material or agent. White blood cells or leukocytes are invloved. These mechanisms are found in the 2nd and 3rd lines of defense.
  7. Where is A Lysozyme Found and What Does It Target?
    Lysozyme is found in tears and saliva. It is an enzyme that targets peptidoglycan in prukaryotic cell walls.
  8. What Are The Three Steps In A Healthy Functioning Immune System?
    • 1.) Surveillance of the body
    • 2.) Recognition of foreign material
    • 3.) Destruction of foreign material or agent
  9. 4 Systems That Participate in Immune Function: All Work Together
    • Lymphatic System: A system of vessels and organs that serve as sites for development of immune cells and reaction. It includes the SPLEEN, THYMUS, LYMPH NODES, and GALT
    • Circulatory System: This system runs parallel to the Lymphatic.
    • Reticuleondothelial System (RES): Network of connective tissue fibers (reticulum). Interconnects cells. Allow immune cells to bind and move outside the blood and lymphatic system.
    • Extracellular Fluid (ECF): The spaces aurrounding the tissue cells and RES. Enables immune cells move
  10. How Does Unclotted and Clotted Blood Differ?
    • Unclotted Blood- contains 3 layers: redblood cells, buffy coat (contains WBC's) and plasma (contains plates)
    • Clotted Blood: contains 2 layers: red blood cells(clot) and serum
  11. What Is Hematopoiesis?
    the normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
  12. What Blood Cells Are Derived From The Myeloid Stem Cell Branch?
    Red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells: granulocytes(neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) and monocytes( macrophages and dendritic cells)
  13. What Blood Cells Are Derived From The Lymphoid Stem Cell Branch?
    Agranulocytes( B and T cells) Natural Killer (NK) cells
  14. Which Of The White Blood Cells Are Classified As Agranulocytes?
    Lymphocytes, Monocytes
  15. Which of The White Blood Cells Are Classified As Granulocytes?
    Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
  16. All of The Blood Cells and Their Functions
    White Blood Cells
    • Leukocytes (wbc) include : Granulocytes- NEUTROPHILS- nuclei: pleomorphic (multiple lobes for its nucleus). Present im high numbers in blood and tissue. First to arrive during immune response such as inflamation. Phagocytizes bacteria, granules are digestive enzymes (This cell eats bacteria) primary responder to the job.
    • EOSINOPHILS- nuclei bi-lobed (two). Present in low numbers in the body. Present in the bone marrow and spleen. Attach and destroy eukaryotic pathogens (fungus, protozoa, yeast) and associated with inflammation and allergies.
    • BASOPHILS- nucleus is constricted (one lobe). Present in low numbers in the body. Function is similar to eosinophils allergies and inflammation. Main cell in allergies and inflammation. Basophils circulate and move and mast cells are localized (dont move)
    • AGRANULOCYTES:
    • LYMPHOCYTES (B and T cells) nucleus very large. Specific third line of defense immunity. T and B cells present throughout the body.
    • MONOCYTES (Macrophage and Dendritic cells) nuclei horseshoe or kidney shaped. Very large cells (twice the size fo RBCs and other WBCs) Differentiate into macrophages (circulation and lymphatic systems) and dendritic cells ( tissue associated ) Phagocytosis, macrophages move and dendritic cells are stationary.
  17. Never Let Monkeys Eat Bannas
    • The White Blood Cells In Order of Abundance:
    • Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Basophils
  18. Name The Different Organs Of The Lymphatic System
    • Nodes, Tonsils, Thymus(matures T cells), GALT,(recognizes incoming microbes from food . supplies Spleen(filters red blood cells, traps pathogens
    • ),
  19. What Can Induce The Inflammatory Response?
    Trauma, Necrosis, Infection, Foreign Agent, Neoplasm
  20. What Are TheSymptoms Of Inflamation?
    Injury, Rubor/calor-reddness or warmth, Tumor-swelling, Loss of function, Dolor-pain
  21. What Are The Stages of Inflammation?
    Injury occurs, vasoconstrictions blood vessels are closed to prevent anything from spreading mast cells arrive and release histamine. Vascular Reactions- vasodilation, allows ,more blood flow to the site which allows more neutrophils. histamine acts as a chemical mediaotr attracting neutrophil, clot forms as a chemotoxic agent Edema and pus formation-more neutrophils, Resolution or scar lymphocytes and macrophages come and destroy anythign the neutrophils left behind.
  22. What Is A Fever?
    Caused by pyrogens resets the hypothalamic thermostat, increasing body temp. Pyrogens are exogenous vs. endogenous, microbes and their products, and leukocyte products. Fever inhibits microbe and viral multiplication reduces nutrient availability and increases immune reactions
  23. What Are The Steps Of Phagocytosis?
    • 1.) Chemotaxis, moving toward a bacteria
    • 2.) Adhesion of bacteria PAMP allows this adhesion (pathogen associated molecular pattern)
    • 3.) Engulfment/Phagosome phagocyte opens and eats
    • 4.) PHAGOSOME
    • 5.) Phagosome fuses with a lysosome,becoming phagolysome
    • 6.)Destruction of bacteria through phagolysomes enzymes
    • 7.) Exocytosis
  24. What Are The Steps Of Inteferon Production?
    Interferon is produced, released, and taken up by a nearby cell where by the original cell is not protected but the recipient cell is protected. The original cell sacrfices itself in order to protect the rest.
  25. What Are The Steps Of Complement?
    • INITATION: compliment has been activated
    • AMPLIFICATION and CASCADE: increase of compliment proteins (antimicrobial proteins)
    • POLYMERIZATION: all proteins come together on the bacterial cell membrane
    • MEMBRANE ATTACK: they punch holes in the cell membrane causin lysis.
  26. What Is Humoral Immunity?
    protective molecules (mostly by B lymphocytes) carried in the fluids of the body
  27. What Is Cell Mediated Immunity?
    The type of immune response brought about by T cells, such as cytotoxins and helper effects
  28. Where Do B and T Cells Mature?
    B cells mature in Bone Marrow. T cells matue in the thymus
  29. What Is The Colonal Deletion Theory?
    Deletion gets rid of the clones that can only recognize "self-cells"
  30. What Is The Colonal Selection Theory?
    certain antigen is recognized by a certain clone, and then the clone replicates
  31. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
    Composed of glycoprotein, each individual has a unique MHC profile. There are about 500 different genes that rearrange themsleves. Two Classes MHC 1 and MHC 2
  32. Cell Receptors/ Markers
    Host cell receptors confer specificity and identity. The role is detection, recogonition, and communication. Lymphocyte cells recognize the host cell receptors as "self", meaning they do not destroy. Lymphocyte cells also recognize the microbes receptors as "nonself", which initiates the microbes destruction
  33. What is The Difference Between MHC 1 and MHC 2?
    MHC 1 markers can be found on all nucleated cells, whereas MHC 2 can be found on all antigen presening cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells
  34. Where Are The MHC 1 And MHC2 Markers Located?
    They can be found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. However, eosinophiles, T cells, and basohpils only have MHC class 1.
  35. What Type of Cell Does Not Contain MHC 1 Markers?
    Red Blood Cells do not have either class 1 or 2 MHC receptors.
  36. What Does a B Cell and T Cell Receptor Look Like?
    The B cell receptor looks Y shaped and has two antigen binding sites. The T cell receptor looks like two squiggly straws and has only one anitgen binding site.
  37. What Can Act As An Antigen?
    • Anything foreign in the body can act as an antigen. This would include: Proteins and polupeptides such as enzymes, cell surface structures, hormones, exotoxins.
    • Lipoproteins such as cell membranes.
    • Glycoproteins on blood cell markers
    • Nucleoproteins, or DNA complexed to proteins
    • Polysaccharides such as capsules and LPS
  38. IMMUNOGEN
    If there is less than 1000 molecular weight, there is no immune recogonition, if it is geater than 1000 molecular weight there is an immune recognition. Large proteins are better immunogens than polysaccharides (carbohydrates)
  39. What Is Epitope?
    A portion of the antigen recognized by lymphocyte receptor. This is the part of the antigen recoginzed by the B/T cell recpetor
  40. What Is A Hapten?
    Antigens that are too small to elicit an immune response. Haptens can bind to other things such as normal flora
  41. What Is A Superantigen?
    This is an overstimualtion of the immune system. It is caused by bacterial toxins. T cell activation is much greater than the antigen, creating a large release of cytotoxins. This can result in such things as toxic shock syndrome and some autoimmune diseases.
  42. What Are The Steps In a B Cell Respone?
    
  43. Describe The Structure of An Antibody or Immunoglobulin
    These are the products of B cell activation (plasma cells) Immunoglobulin (Ig) or antibody. The structure is Y shaped with 2 antigen binding sites. The bottom part or Fc is what determines what type of antibody it is.
  44. Five Classes of Antigens: IgE
    This is a monomer containing 2 antigen binding sites. It is related to allergies and parasite infections. It can be used to distinguish eukaryote pathogens from prokaryotes. The Fc portion binds to mast cells, and basophils. It releases chemical mediators that aid in inflammation
  45. Five Classes of Antigens: IgD
    This is a monomer and has 2 antigen binding sites. Its receptor is on Bcells and is the least abundant of the five classes.
  46. Five Classes of Antigens: IgM
    This is a pentamer, or 5 monomers held together by a J chain. This has 10 binding sites and is associated with complement fixaxtion, meaning it can acitvate Complement. It can serve as a B cell recpetor. It is the first to be synthesized during primary immune response. It is the first class made, and is then turned to IgG later.
  47. Five Classes of Antigens: IgA
    90% of the time this is a dimer, held together by a J chain, it has 4 connector sites. It is a secretory antibody/,ucous and serous secretions/ local immunity, salivary glands, intestine, nasal membrane, breast, lung, genitourinary tract. It is also found in colostrum, which serves as a protection for newborns who are breast fed.
  48. Five Classes of Antibodies: IgG
    • This is a monomer and it is the most abundant of all five. It has 2 binding sites. Its memory cell responsive, meaning it is used in memory or acquired immunity. It is the primary and secondary response due to an infection.
    • It is most prevalent in tissue fluid and blood.
  49. How Do Antibodies Target Antigens? (six ways)
  50. What Is The Difference Between Primary and Secondary Immune Response To Antigens?
  51. What Is The Mechanism Of Action For T Helper Cells?
  52. What Is The Mechanism Of Action for Cytotoxic T Cells?
  53. What Are The Differences Between The Four Types of Immunities?
  54. What Are The Requirements For An Effective Vaccine?
  55. What Are The Differences Between The Different Types Of Vaccines?
  56. What Is A DNA Vaccine?




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  57. What Type of Lymphocyte Is Involved With Type 1 Hypersensitivity?
  58. What Type Of Lymphocyte Is Involved With Type 2 Hypersensitivity?
  59. What Type Of Lymphocyte Is Involved With Type 3 Hypersensitivity?
  60. What Type Of Lymphocyte Is Involved With Type 4 Hypersensitivity?
  61. What Is An Allergen?
  62. What Is The Difference Between Atopy and Anaphalaxis in Type 1 Allergic Responses?
  63. For a Type 1 Response, What Are The Atopic Disease(s) and Anaphalaxis?
  64. What Is The Epidemiology and Common Allergens (classified by portal of entry) of a Type 1 Hypersensitivity?
  65. What Is The Mechanism of Action For A Type 1 Allergic Respone?
  66. The Inflamatory Cytokines and Their Targets/Symptoms
  67. How Are Type 1 Hypersensitivities Diagnosed?
  68. What Is The Treatment and Prevention For A Type 1 Response?
  69. What Is The Mechanism Of Action For An Incompatible Blood Transfusion?
  70. Name The Type Of Antibodies Responsible For An Incompatable Blood Transfusion If The Donor Has Blood Type : A-
  71. Name The Type Of Antibodies Responsible For An Incompatable Blood Transfusion If The Donor Has Blood Type : A+
  72. Name The Type Of Antibodies Responsible For An Incompatable Blood Transfusion If The Donor Has Blood Type : B-
  73. Name The Type Of Antibodies Responsible For An Incompatable Blood Transfusion If The Donor Has Blood Type : B+
  74. Name The Type Of Antibodies Responsible For An Incompatable Blood Transfusion If The Donor Has Blood Type : AB+
  75. Name The Type Of Antibodies Responsible For An Incompatable Blood Transfusion If The Donor Has Blood Type : AB-
  76. Name The Type Of Antibodies Responsible For An Incompatable Blood Transfusion If The Donor Has Blood Type : O-
  77. Name The Type Of Antibodies Responsible For An Incompatable Blood Transfusion If The Donor Has Blood Type : O+
  78. If A Patient Has The Following Blood Type, What Are The Possible Blood Types They Could Recieve?
    A-
  79. If A Patient Has The Following Blood Type, What Are The Possible Blood Types They Could Recieve?
    A+
  80. If A Patient Has The Following Blood Type, What Are The Possible Blood Types They Could Recieve?
    B+
  81. If A Patient Has The Following Blood Type, What Are The Possible Blood Types They Could Recieve?
    AB-
  82. If A Patient Has The Following Blood Type, What Are The Possible Blood Types They Could Recieve?
    AB+
  83. If A Patient Has The Following Blood Type, What Are The Possible Blood Types They Could Recieve?
    O-
  84. If A Patient Has The Following Blood Type, What Are The Possible Blood Types They Could Recieve?
    0+
  85. How is The Rh Factor Important For Hemolytic Disease Of A Newborn?
  86. What Are The Blood Types For The Mother and Child In Hemolytic Disease?
  87. How Can Hemolytic Disease Be Prevented?
  88. What Is The Mechanism Of Action For A Type 3 Hypersensitivity?
  89. What Is The Main Difference Between Type 2 and Type 3 Hypersensitivity?
  90. What Are The Names Of The Immune Complex Diseases That Are Classified As Type 3 Hypersensitivity?

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