Card Set Information
nutrition vitamins water balance energy
functions, deficiency, RDA, toxicity, best food sources, water balance, and energy balance
what are the best food sources for vitmin A(retinol)?
animal foods: liver, egg yolk, cream, butter or fortified margaine, fortified milk
plant foods: dark green and deep or ange veggies (spinach, collards, broccoli, pumpkin, sweet potatoes,carrots)
what is vitamin A's functions?
vision cycle, adapting light and dark, tissue growth, especially skin and mucus membranes, reproduction,immune function
what is the vitamin A's RDA?
what is vitamin A's deficiency?
night blindness, xerosis, xerophthalmia, susceptibility to epithelial infection; dry skin, impaired immunity, growth, and reproduction
what are vitamin A's toxicity?
hair loss, irrated skin, bone pain, liver damage, birth defects
what is vit. D's functions?
absorption of calcium and phosphorus, calcification of bones and teeth, growth
what is vit. D's RDA?
: 19-50yr: 5mcg/day
what is vit. D's other names?
what is vit. D's deficiency?
rickets and growth retardation in childern, osteomalacia (soft bones) in adults
what is vit. D's toxicity?
UL: 50mcg/day calcification of soft tissue, kidney damage, growth retardation
what is vit. D's best food sources?
synthesized in skin with exposure to sunlight, fortified milk, fish oils
what is vit. E's (a-tocopherol) function?
antioxidant: protection of materials that oxidize easily
what is vit. E's RDA?
adults: 15 mg/day
what is vit. E's deficiency?
breakdown of RBCs, anemia, nerve damage, retinopathy
what is vit. E's toxicity?
UL: 1000mg/day (from supplements) inhibition of vitamin K activity in blood clotting
what is vit. E's best food sources?
vegetable oils, vegetable greens, wheat germ, nuts, seeds
what is vit. K's (phylloquinone,menaquinone) functions?
normal blood clotting and bone development
what is vit. K's RDA?
AI: men, 120mcg/day; women, 90mcg/day
what is vit. K's deficiency?
bleeding tendencies, hemorrhagic disease, poor bone growth
what is vit. K's toxicity?
: not set
interference with anticoagulation drugs
what is vit. K's best food sources?
synthesis by intestinal bacteria; dark-green, leafy vegetables, soybean oil
what is vit. C's (ascorbic acid) functions?
antioxident; collagen synthesis; helps prepare iron for absorption and release to tissues for red blood cell formation, metabolism
what is vit. C's RDA?
smokers an additional 35mg/day
what is vit. C's deficiency?
scurvy: sore gums; hemorrhages, especially around bones and joints; anemia; tendency to bruise easily; impaired wound healing and tissue formation; weakened bones; impaired wound healing
what is vit. C's toxicity?
what is vit. C's best food sources?
citrus fruit, kiwi, tomatoes, melons, strawberries, dark leafy vegetables, chili peppers, cabbage, broccoli, chard, green and redpeppers, potatoes
what is vit. B1's (thiamin) functions?
normal growth; coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; normal function of heart, nerves, and muscle
what is vit. B1's RDA?
: 1.1 mg
what is vit. B1's deficiency?
beriberi: GI: loss of appetite, gastric distress, indigestion, deficient hydrochloric acid; CNS: fatigue, nerve damage, paralysis; CV: heart failure, edema of legs
what is vit. B1's toxicity?
not set; unknown
what is vit. B1's best food sources?
pork, beef, liver, whole or enriched grains, legumes, wheat germ
what is vit. riboflavin's functions?
normal growth and energy; coenzyme in protein and energy metabolism
what is vit. riboflavin's RDA?
: 1.3 mg
: 1.1 mg
what is vit. riboflavin's deficiency?
ariboflavinosis; wound aggravation; cracks at comers of mouth; swollen, red tongue; eye irritation; skin eruptions
what is vit. riboflavin's toxicity?
not set; unknown
what is vit. riboflavin's best food sources?
milk, meats, enriched cereals, green vegetables
what is vit. B3 (niacin, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid) function?
coenzymes in energy production; normal growth, health of skin
what is vit. B3 RDA?
: 16mg NE
: 14mg NE
what is vit. B3 deficiency?
pellagra; weakness; loss of appetite; diarrhea; scaly dermatitis; neuritis; confusion
what is vit. B3 toxicity?
35 mg; skin flushing
what is vit. B3 best food sources?
meats, poultry, fish, or enriched grain products
what is vit. B6 (pyridoxine) function?
coenzyme in amino acid metabolism: protein synthesis, heme formation, brain activity; carrier for amino acid absorption
what is vit. B6 RDA?
: 1.3 mg
: 1.7 mg
: 1.5 mg
what is vit. B6 deficiency?
anemia; hyperirritability; convulsions; neuritis
what is vit. B6 toxicity?
100 mg; nerve damage
what is vit. B6 best food sources?
wheat germ, legumes, meats, poultry, seafood
what is vit. B12 (cobalamin) function?
coenzyme in synthesis of heme for hemoglobin; myelin sheath formation to protect nerves
what is vit. B12 RDA?
what is vit. B12 deficiency?
pernicious anemia; poor nerve function
what is vit. B12 toxicity?
not set; unknown
what is vit. B12 best food sources?
liver, lean meats, fish, seafood
what is vit. pantothenic acid function?
formation of CoA; fat, tholesterol, protein, and heme formation
what is vit. pantothenic acid RDA?
AI: 5 mg
what is vit. pantothenic acid deficiency?
unlikely because of widespread distribution in most foods
what is vit. pantothenic acid toxicity?
not set; unknown
what is vit. pantothenic acid best food sources?
meats, eggs, milk, whole grains, legumes, vegetables
what is mineral calcium (Ca) function?
bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and relaxation, nerve transmission
what is mineral calcium RDA?
: 1000 mg
> 51 yr
: 1200 mg
what is mineral calcium deficiency?
tetany, rickets, osteoporosis
what is mineral calcium toxicity?
2500 mg; increases risk of kidney stones, constipation; interferes with absorption of other nutrients
what is mineral calcium best food sources?
dairy products, fish bones, fortified orange juice and cereals, legumes, green leafy vegetables
what is mineral phosphorus (P) function?
bone and tooth formation, energy metabolism, DNA and RNA, acid-base balance
what is mineral phosphorus RDA?
what is mineral phosphorus deficieny?
unlikely but can cause bone loss loss of appetite, weakness
what is mineral phosphorus toxicity?
4g; bone resorption (loss of calcium)
what is mineral phosphorus best food source?
high-protein foods (meat, dairy) and soft drinks
what is mineral sodium (NA) function?
major extracellular fluid control, water balance, acid-base balance, muscle action, transmission of nerve impulse and resulting contraction
what is mineral sodium RDA?
: 19-50 yr: 1.5g
what is mineral sodium deficiency?
fluid shifts, acid-base imbalance, cramping
what is mineral sodium toxicity?
2.3 g; hypertension in saltsensitive people, edema
what is mineral sodium best food sources?
table salt, processed foods (luncheon meats, salty snacks)
what is mineral potassium (K) function?
major intracellular fluid control, acid-base balance, regulation of nerve impulse and muscle contraction, blood pressure regulation
what is mineral potassium RDA?
AI: > 14 yr: 4.7 g
what is mineral potassium deficiency?
irregular heartbeat, difficulty breathing, muscle weakness
what is mineral potassium toxicity?
not set; cardiac arrest
what is mineral potassium best food source?
fresh fruit, vegetables, meats, whole grains
what is mineral chloride (Cl) function?
acid-base balance (chloride shift), hydrochloric acid (digestion)
what is mineral chloride RDA?
: 19-50 yr: 2.3 g
: 2.0 g
: 1.8 g
what is mineral chloride deficiency?
hypochloremic alkalosis in prolonged vomiting, diarrhea
what is mineral chloride toxicity?
not set; unlikely
what is mineral chloride best food sources?
table salt, processed foods
what is mineral magnesium (Mg) function?
coenzyme in metabolism, muscle and nerve action, aids thyroid hormone secrtion
what is mineral magnesium RDA?
: 400-420 mg
: 310-320 mg
what is mineral magnesium deficiency?
tremor, spasm, low serum level after GI losses or renal losses from alcoholism, convulsions
what is mineral magnesium toxicity?
350 mg (from supplments); nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
what is mineral magnesium best food sources?
whole grains, nuts, legumes, green vegetables, seafood, cocoa
what is mineral sulfur (S) function?
essential constituent of cell protein, hair, skin, nails, vitamin, and collagen structure; high-energy sulfur bonds in energy metabolism
what is mineral sulfur RDA?
diets adequate in protein contain adequate sulfur
what is mineral sulfur deficiency?
what is mineral sulfur toxicity?
not set; unlikely
what is mineral sulfur best food source?
meat, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, legumes
what is mineral iodine (I) function?
synthesis of T4, which regulates cell oxidation and BMR
what is mineral iodine RDA?
what is mineral iodine deficiency?
goiter, cretinism, hypothyroidism
what is mineral iodine toxicity?
1100 mcg; goiter
what is mineral iodine best food source?
iodized salt, seafood