nutrition test-#2

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Author:
aafrey09
ID:
114296
Filename:
nutrition test-#2
Updated:
2011-11-06 08:01:01
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nutrition vitamins water balance energy
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Description:
functions, deficiency, RDA, toxicity, best food sources, water balance, and energy balance
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  1. what are the best food sources for vitmin A(retinol)?
    animal foods: liver, egg yolk, cream, butter or fortified margaine, fortified milk

    plant foods: dark green and deep or ange veggies (spinach, collards, broccoli, pumpkin, sweet potatoes,carrots)
  2. what is vitamin A's functions?
    vision cycle, adapting light and dark, tissue growth, especially skin and mucus membranes, reproduction,immune function
  3. what is the vitamin A's RDA?
    • men: 900mcg/day
    • women: 700mcg/day
  4. what is vitamin A's deficiency?
    night blindness, xerosis, xerophthalmia, susceptibility to epithelial infection; dry skin, impaired immunity, growth, and reproduction
  5. what are vitamin A's toxicity?
    • ul:3000mcg/day
    • hair loss, irrated skin, bone pain, liver damage, birth defects
  6. what is vit. D's functions?
    absorption of calcium and phosphorus, calcification of bones and teeth, growth
  7. what is vit. D's RDA?
    • AI: 19-50yr: 5mcg/day
    • 51-70yr: 10mcg/day
    • 70+: 15mcg/day
  8. what is vit. D's other names?
    cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol
  9. what is vit. D's deficiency?
    rickets and growth retardation in childern, osteomalacia (soft bones) in adults
  10. what is vit. D's toxicity?
    UL: 50mcg/day calcification of soft tissue, kidney damage, growth retardation
  11. what is vit. D's best food sources?
    synthesized in skin with exposure to sunlight, fortified milk, fish oils
  12. what is vit. E's (a-tocopherol) function?
    antioxidant: protection of materials that oxidize easily
  13. what is vit. E's RDA?
    adults: 15 mg/day
  14. what is vit. E's deficiency?
    breakdown of RBCs, anemia, nerve damage, retinopathy
  15. what is vit. E's toxicity?
    UL: 1000mg/day (from supplements) inhibition of vitamin K activity in blood clotting
  16. what is vit. E's best food sources?
    vegetable oils, vegetable greens, wheat germ, nuts, seeds
  17. what is vit. K's (phylloquinone,menaquinone) functions?
    normal blood clotting and bone development
  18. what is vit. K's RDA?
    AI: men, 120mcg/day; women, 90mcg/day
  19. what is vit. K's deficiency?
    bleeding tendencies, hemorrhagic disease, poor bone growth
  20. what is vit. K's toxicity?
    • UL: not set
    • interference with anticoagulation drugs
  21. what is vit. K's best food sources?
    synthesis by intestinal bacteria; dark-green, leafy vegetables, soybean oil
  22. what is vit. C's (ascorbic acid) functions?
    antioxident; collagen synthesis; helps prepare iron for absorption and release to tissues for red blood cell formation, metabolism
  23. what is vit. C's RDA?
    • men: 90mg
    • women: 75mg
    • smokers an additional 35mg/day
  24. what is vit. C's deficiency?
    scurvy: sore gums; hemorrhages, especially around bones and joints; anemia; tendency to bruise easily; impaired wound healing and tissue formation; weakened bones; impaired wound healing
  25. what is vit. C's toxicity?
    2000mg; diarrhea
  26. what is vit. C's best food sources?
    citrus fruit, kiwi, tomatoes, melons, strawberries, dark leafy vegetables, chili peppers, cabbage, broccoli, chard, green and redpeppers, potatoes
  27. what is vit. B1's (thiamin) functions?
    normal growth; coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; normal function of heart, nerves, and muscle
  28. what is vit. B1's RDA?
    • men: 1.2mg
    • women: 1.1 mg
  29. what is vit. B1's deficiency?
    beriberi: GI: loss of appetite, gastric distress, indigestion, deficient hydrochloric acid; CNS: fatigue, nerve damage, paralysis; CV: heart failure, edema of legs
  30. what is vit. B1's toxicity?
    not set; unknown
  31. what is vit. B1's best food sources?
    pork, beef, liver, whole or enriched grains, legumes, wheat germ
  32. what is vit. riboflavin's functions?
    normal growth and energy; coenzyme in protein and energy metabolism
  33. what is vit. riboflavin's RDA?
    • men: 1.3 mg
    • women: 1.1 mg
  34. what is vit. riboflavin's deficiency?
    ariboflavinosis; wound aggravation; cracks at comers of mouth; swollen, red tongue; eye irritation; skin eruptions
  35. what is vit. riboflavin's toxicity?
    not set; unknown
  36. what is vit. riboflavin's best food sources?
    milk, meats, enriched cereals, green vegetables
  37. what is vit. B3 (niacin, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid) function?
    coenzymes in energy production; normal growth, health of skin
  38. what is vit. B3 RDA?
    • men: 16mg NE
    • women: 14mg NE
  39. what is vit. B3 deficiency?
    pellagra; weakness; loss of appetite; diarrhea; scaly dermatitis; neuritis; confusion
  40. what is vit. B3 toxicity?
    35 mg; skin flushing
  41. what is vit. B3 best food sources?
    meats, poultry, fish, or enriched grain products
  42. what is vit. B6 (pyridoxine) function?
    coenzyme in amino acid metabolism: protein synthesis, heme formation, brain activity; carrier for amino acid absorption
  43. what is vit. B6 RDA?
    • 19-50 yr: 1.3 mg
    • men> 51: 1.7 mg
    • women> 51: 1.5 mg
  44. what is vit. B6 deficiency?
    anemia; hyperirritability; convulsions; neuritis
  45. what is vit. B6 toxicity?
    100 mg; nerve damage
  46. what is vit. B6 best food sources?
    wheat germ, legumes, meats, poultry, seafood
  47. what is vit. B12 (cobalamin) function?
    coenzyme in synthesis of heme for hemoglobin; myelin sheath formation to protect nerves
  48. what is vit. B12 RDA?
    2.4 mcg
  49. what is vit. B12 deficiency?
    pernicious anemia; poor nerve function
  50. what is vit. B12 toxicity?
    not set; unknown
  51. what is vit. B12 best food sources?
    liver, lean meats, fish, seafood
  52. what is vit. pantothenic acid function?
    formation of CoA; fat, tholesterol, protein, and heme formation
  53. what is vit. pantothenic acid RDA?
    AI: 5 mg
  54. what is vit. pantothenic acid deficiency?
    unlikely because of widespread distribution in most foods
  55. what is vit. pantothenic acid toxicity?
    not set; unknown
  56. what is vit. pantothenic acid best food sources?
    meats, eggs, milk, whole grains, legumes, vegetables
  57. what is mineral calcium (Ca) function?
    bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and relaxation, nerve transmission
  58. what is mineral calcium RDA?
    • 19-50 yr: 1000 mg
    • > 51 yr: 1200 mg
  59. what is mineral calcium deficiency?
    tetany, rickets, osteoporosis
  60. what is mineral calcium toxicity?
    2500 mg; increases risk of kidney stones, constipation; interferes with absorption of other nutrients
  61. what is mineral calcium best food sources?
    dairy products, fish bones, fortified orange juice and cereals, legumes, green leafy vegetables
  62. what is mineral phosphorus (P) function?
    bone and tooth formation, energy metabolism, DNA and RNA, acid-base balance
  63. what is mineral phosphorus RDA?
    700 mg
  64. what is mineral phosphorus deficieny?
    unlikely but can cause bone loss loss of appetite, weakness
  65. what is mineral phosphorus toxicity?
    4g; bone resorption (loss of calcium)
  66. what is mineral phosphorus best food source?
    high-protein foods (meat, dairy) and soft drinks
  67. what is mineral sodium (NA) function?
    major extracellular fluid control, water balance, acid-base balance, muscle action, transmission of nerve impulse and resulting contraction
  68. what is mineral sodium RDA?
    • AI: 19-50 yr: 1.5g
    • 51-70 yr: 1.3g
    • >71 yr: 1.2g
  69. what is mineral sodium deficiency?
    fluid shifts, acid-base imbalance, cramping
  70. what is mineral sodium toxicity?
    2.3 g; hypertension in saltsensitive people, edema
  71. what is mineral sodium best food sources?
    table salt, processed foods (luncheon meats, salty snacks)
  72. what is mineral potassium (K) function?
    major intracellular fluid control, acid-base balance, regulation of nerve impulse and muscle contraction, blood pressure regulation
  73. what is mineral potassium RDA?
    AI: > 14 yr: 4.7 g
  74. what is mineral potassium deficiency?
    irregular heartbeat, difficulty breathing, muscle weakness
  75. what is mineral potassium toxicity?
    not set; cardiac arrest
  76. what is mineral potassium best food source?
    fresh fruit, vegetables, meats, whole grains
  77. what is mineral chloride (Cl) function?
    acid-base balance (chloride shift), hydrochloric acid (digestion)
  78. what is mineral chloride RDA?
    • AI: 19-50 yr: 2.3 g
    • 51-70 yr: 2.0 g
    • >71 yr: 1.8 g
  79. what is mineral chloride deficiency?
    hypochloremic alkalosis in prolonged vomiting, diarrhea
  80. what is mineral chloride toxicity?
    not set; unlikely
  81. what is mineral chloride best food sources?
    table salt, processed foods
  82. what is mineral magnesium (Mg) function?
    coenzyme in metabolism, muscle and nerve action, aids thyroid hormone secrtion
  83. what is mineral magnesium RDA?
    • men: 400-420 mg
    • women: 310-320 mg
  84. what is mineral magnesium deficiency?
    tremor, spasm, low serum level after GI losses or renal losses from alcoholism, convulsions
  85. what is mineral magnesium toxicity?
    350 mg (from supplments); nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  86. what is mineral magnesium best food sources?
    whole grains, nuts, legumes, green vegetables, seafood, cocoa
  87. what is mineral sulfur (S) function?
    essential constituent of cell protein, hair, skin, nails, vitamin, and collagen structure; high-energy sulfur bonds in energy metabolism
  88. what is mineral sulfur RDA?
    diets adequate in protein contain adequate sulfur
  89. what is mineral sulfur deficiency?
    unlikely
  90. what is mineral sulfur toxicity?
    not set; unlikely
  91. what is mineral sulfur best food source?
    meat, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, legumes
  92. what is mineral iodine (I) function?
    synthesis of T4, which regulates cell oxidation and BMR
  93. what is mineral iodine RDA?
    150 mcg
  94. what is mineral iodine deficiency?
    goiter, cretinism, hypothyroidism
  95. what is mineral iodine toxicity?
    1100 mcg; goiter
  96. what is mineral iodine best food source?
    iodized salt, seafood

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