Advanced age, heredity, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity
This is an accumlation of lipids, calcium, blood compenents, etc on the intima lining of the artery.
Most common cause of PVD
Hypertension, elevated C-reactive, and high lipid levels are what type of PVD risk factors?
This protein elevates with cardio vascular inflammation amd indicates damage to the vasculature.
What % of Arterial embolisms form in the heart?
Caucasian woman over 55 with HTN, diabetes, hyperlipedemia, and stress are the most common age group at risk for PAD.
T or F
False. Men over 50 with the same diseases are most at risk regardless of race.
Cramping, weaknes, and aching while walking that is relieved with rest is known as?
A nuring intervention for patient's with PAD is to keep the feet elevated 40 degrees in a dependent position.
While a patient with PAD should be positioned in a dependent position, the feet MUST not be elevated. The legs should be allowed to hang down.
Legs that are cool and pale when elevated with numbness describes a patient with what type of condition?
A patient with PVD will have pounding pulses that are easily paplable and are equal between both Extremities.
T or F
Just the opposite will occur.
Define line of demarcaion.
A sharp line where the circulation is adequate above the clot, but indeadequate below the clot.
Muscle cramp type pain that is relieved with rest is ?
Decreased temperature at the ischemic site is known as?
Also know as pins and needles feeling.
This is associated with impaired conduction of nerve caused by reduction of oxygen and nutrients to the nerves and accumulation of waste materials.
This increases RBC flexibility and lowers bid fibrinogen concentration. It also has a anit-platelet effect.
In the tretment of PAD, this drug is a vasodilator and decreases platelet aggregation.
Describe the therapeutic effect of ASA and Plavix.
They prevent formation of thromboemboli
Name four surgical managements for Peripheral Arterial Occulusive disoders.
A person is postop for a percutaneous angioplasty and you noticed that he no longer has a pulse distal to the surgical site. When should you notify the Dr.?
a. wait 2 more hours then try again because this is common occurence for the first 24 hours after surgery.
b. not necessary to contact Dr. Charge nurse will do it.
c. Not necessary to contact anyone but make sure you chart it immediately so it will be available for the Dr. to review it when he enters his notes on the chart.
d. Notify the doctor immediately
Inflammation of the intermediate and small arteries and veins of the lower and upper extremities casuing thrombus and occlusion of vessels.
Thromboangitis Obliterans (Buerger's disease)
This is occurs more common inmen 20-35 that are heavy smokers and chew tobacco. They have been known to have complaints of pain in the arch of their feet after exercising.
Intermittent constriction of arterioles of the fingers, toes, and tips of the nose with feelings of cold, pain, and signs of pallor describes
a. Buerger's disease
b. Sclero derma
c. Raynaud's disease
d. Thromboangitis Obliterans
This disease affects mainly affects woman and is triggered by exposure to cold.
Place the word from the left column with the correct descrption in the right column:
pallor return of O2
redness--return of O2
Used to determine arteriole circulation in the hands.
Name two forms of aneurysms
sacular-projecting from one side
fusiform- entire dilates
The most common type of aneurysm is?
abdominal artoric aneurysm
An aneurysm that involves 1-3 layers of the a dissected vessel is?
About a third of the people who have this die and is the most common site for a dissecting aneurysm
An aneurysm om 4cm or more requires emergency surgery?
T or F
Aneurysm that are <5cm are watch for months.
What is the best non-surgical intervention to reduce the risk of a ruptured aneurysm?
A patient diagnosed with a 4 cm aneurysm 3 months ago begins complaining of lower back pain radiating to his groin. Should the patient be concerned?
Yes because it maybe an indication that the aneurysm is expanding.
The most common cause of arotic aneurysms are?
HTN and artheroscleriosis (accumlation of plaque within the artery)
85% of tthoriac aneurysms are caused by artherosclerosis. What is the most common symptom?
None. This type of aneurysm frequently presents with no complaints.
A patient with a history of presents with dysphaiga, hoarseness, and aphonia( loss of voice). What ype of aneurysm is the patient presenting with?
Esophageal aneurysm. Largely because the aneurysm is putting pressure on the laryngeal nerve.
The most common location for a Triple A to occur.
Between the renal arteries
When a patient states they can feel their heart beat in their abdomen while lying down, you suspect what?
A puslating hematoma is know as a
Abdominal pain, falling BP, decreasing HCT, severe back pain, diaporesis, tachycardia, and constricted pupils are signs of ______.
A dissecting aneurysm occuring in this location has the highest morality rate.
ascending aortic arch
Its not okay for a nurse to delegate the responsibility of personal care to a patient with a repaired aneurysm to personal assistant.
Leg swelling, calf pain, decreased peripheral pulses, cynaosis, and poor cap refill in the toes are indications of _______?