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- was King of the Danish Vikings in the Danelaw. He is mainly known for his
- conflict with Alfred the Great in which they agreed to divide the lands of
- England. Guthram converted to Christianity and his conversion served as an oath
- or legal binding to the treaty, making its significance more political than
- Vikings are the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and
- pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia
- and the North Atlantic islands. These Norsemen used their famed longships to
- travel great distances. This period of Viking expansion – known as the Viking
- Age – forms a major part of the medieval history.
- Charlemagne was King of the Franks. He expanded the Frankish
- kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe.
- During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope
- Leo III. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped
- define both Western Europe and the European Middle Ages.
- Leif was a Nowegian who led a Viking expedition. In this
- expedition, they traveled all the way to North America. Although the Vikings
- did not establish a permanent settlement there, their arrival on this distant
- coast counds as one of history’s most extraordinary feats of sailing, and the
- difficult passage earned the captain the name “Leif the Lucky”.
Alfred the Great
- Alfred the Great was King of Wessex. Alfred is noted for his
- defense of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms against the Vikings. Alfred was a learned
- man who encouraged education and improved his kingdom's legal system and
- military structure.
William the Conqueror
- William the Conqueror was the first Norman King of England. His
- heavy taxes, together with the exactions of the greedy Norman landlords he put
- in power, reduced the great mass of Anglo-Saxon freemen to serfdom. William
- created a feudal state in which he required everyone to take an oath to him as
- liege lord, so the future Anglo- Norman kings could avoid some of the
- decentralization implicit in feudalism.
- were medieval peasants who were personally free, but bound to the land. They
- owed labor obligations as well as fees.
- Otto I restored the title emperor. In many ways he resembled
- Charlemagne. He was a warrior king and won conquests. Otto fostered a revival
- of learning in Germany in which literature and art flourished.
- Hugh was the first King of France of the eponymous
- Capetian dynasty. Most historians regard the beginnings of modern
- France with the coronation of him because he made the city his power center and
- is regarded as the founder of the Capetian dynasty.
- VII was a Pop who was highly sympathetic to the Cluniac order. He decided that
- popes, not kings or emperors, should guide Christendom.
- The Danegeld was a tax raised to pay tribute to the Viking
- raiders to save a land from being ravaged. It was collected both as tributary,
- to buy off the attackers, and as stipendiary, to pay the defensive forces.
- Kiev is a place in Europe. The Scandinavians established a
- strong state centered in Kiev.
- Harold Godwinson was the last Anglo-Saxon King of England.
- Harold is the first of only three Kings of England to have died in warfare.
- Harold was the most famous of the emperors personal guard,
- known as the Varangians. Harold grew so wealthy that while serving in
- Constantinople that when he returned to Norway he became a great king.
Edward the Confessor
- Edward reestablished the Anglo- Saxon monarchy. Edward did
- not have children so when he died, a new succession crisis would lead to the
- conquest of England.
Luouis the Pious
- Louis was Charlemagne’s only son. He inherited the empire,
- but during the course of his reign problems began to arise. The final
- disintegration of Charlemagne’s empire, however, did not occur until after
- Louis’ death. Though his reign ended on a high note, with order largely
- restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Louis is
- generally compared unfavorably to his father, though the problems he faced were
- of a distinctly different sort.
- the first woman to rule the empire, which she did after having her own son
- blinded to make him unfit to rule. Irene is also known for her support of Icons
- in the Eastern Orthodox Church, for which she was made a saint. Empress Irene was a strong proponent of the use
- of Icons in the Christian church, a practice that had been prohibited for 60
- years. After violent opposition from Iconoclasts, Irene managed to arrange the
- Second Council of Nicaea, at which the use of Icons was restored. For this and
- for her patronage of monasteries, Irene is considered a saint in the Eastern
- Orthodox Church.
- Feudalism was a way to provide armies for lords and kings. Feudalism
- was a set of legal and military customs which, broadly defined, was a system
- for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in
- exchange for service or labor. Feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal
- and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three
- key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs.
- A knight is a member of the warrior class of the
- Middle Ages in Europe who followed a code of law called "chivalry".
- Since ancient times, a position of honor and prestige has been held by mounted
- warriors, in which these times it was knighthood. Some orders of knighthood,
- such as the Knights Templar, have themselves become the object of legend.
Louis the German
- the German was Louis the Pious’ son. Louis the German shared his father’s
- kingdom with his two other brothers. Him and Charles the Bald divided up the
- middle kingdom between them. When they took oaths to support each other in this
- dicvision, the oaths were recorded in two languages. This showed how the two
- sections of Charlemagne’s empire were already separating culturally and
Charles the Bald
- Charles the Bald was Louis the Poius’ son. Him and Louis the
- German divided up the middle kingdom between them. When they took oaths to
- support each other in this division, the oaths were recorded in two languages.
- This showed how the two sections of Charlemagne’s empire were already
- separating culturally and linguistically.
- Olaf II was Harald Sigurdson’s brother. He converted the
- Norwegians to Christianity by force of arms and his own charisma.
- Canute ruled England, Denmark, and Norway. He converted to
- Christianity and brought priests from England to complete the conversion of the
- North men.
- was the feudal tie that became interwoven with an elaborate code of values and
- symbolic rituals that served somewhat to tame the violent world of warrioes.
- This code and culture of the ruling class was called chivalry and its values
- became evident in church writings, romantic literature, and treaties.
- Cluny is where a group of monks founded a new monastery at
- southern France. Cluny was established to be directly subordinate to the pope,
- and all subsequent Cluniac foundations were to be accountable to the abbot at
- The Investiture Controversy was the most significant
- conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. A series of popes
- challenged the authority of European monarchies over control of appointments,
- or investitures, of church officials such as bishops and abbots. The
- controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany, and the triumph of
- the great dukes and abbots, until Imperial power was reestablished under the
- Hohenstaufen dynasty.
- was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of
- subjects. His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical
- and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard
- medical text at many medieval universities. His Canon of Medicine provides a
- complete system of medicine according to the principles of Galen. He is
- regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age.
- Renaissance stands out as a period of intellectual and cultural revival in
- Europe. During this period there was an increase of literature, writing, the
- arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical reforms and scriptural studies.
- Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of
- Medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. Combining features of
- Western Roman and Byzantine buildings, Romanesque architecture is known by its
- massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults,
- large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms
- and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall
- appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that
- were to follow.
- Alcuin became headmaster of the church school. In preserving
- and teaching Latin literature and working to strengthen the Christian church,
- Alcuin was instrumental in furthering the synthesis of Germanic, Roman, and
- Christian culture that shaped the early Middle Ages.
Anglo Saxon Chronicle
- The Anglo- Saxon Chronicle was initiated by Alfred the
- Great. It is the history of England that continued Bede’s effort to narrate the
- story of the English.
Roman Empire- Seneca, Pharisees, martyrs, Jesus, Paul (Saul of Tarsus), Peter, Hillel, Sadduccesss, Essenes, Zealots, Melania, Augustine, Chalcedon, Donatists, Arians, monasticism, Anthony of Egypt, pagans, Patrick, Jerusalem, Vulgate, Nicea, Edict of Milan
Heroic- Monastic Age- Muhammad, Ali, Quran, Shia, Sunni, hijira/hegira, Boethius, Leo III, iconoclasts, Gregory II, Mecca, Medina, Benedict of Nursia, Scholastica, Gregory the Great, Whitby, Khadija, caliph
Viking- Cluny, investiture controvery, Avicenna,
- Guthrum, Vikings, Charlemagne, Leif Erikson, Alfred the Great, William the Conqueror, Serfs, Otto 1 (The Great), Hugh Capet, Gregory VII, Danegeld, Kiev, Harold II (England), Harold Sigurdson (Harald Hardadi), Edward the Confessor, Louis the Pious, Irene, Leo III, feudalism, knight, Louis the German, Charles the Bald, Olaf, Canute, chivalry
- Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), Actium, Octavia, Augustus, Lepidus, Antoninus Pius, Commodus, Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Hadrian, Nero, Claudius, Caligula, Tiberius, Vespasian, Domitian, Titus, Cleopatra VII, Constantine I (The Great), tetrarchy, Constantinople, Diocletian, Theodosius I, Goths, Vandals, Huns, Franks, Anglo Saxons
- Heroic Monastic Age- Arthur, Penin the Short, Charles Martel, Clovis, Justinian, Theodora, Theodoric, Lombards, Bulgards, Anglo Saxons, comitatus, wergeld, Franks
Roman Empire- Livy, Tacitus, Suetonius, Colosseum, Ovid, Virgil, Sidonius Apollinaris
Heroic-Monastic Age- Hagia Sophia, Bede
Viking- Carolingian Renaissance, Romaneque architecture, Alcuin, Anglo Saxon Chronicle