15-20 mo: Feed a doll (shift focus from self to others)
30 mo: Doll is feeding self.
4-5 years: dolls comb hair, have teaparties, help doll drink, etc.
Children do not understand that others do not see the world as they do.
One dimensional thinking: ME! (The "self.") Incapable of seeing another person's perspective.
Measured by Three Mountians Test. (Developed by Piaget)
Reasoning about events that is egocentric and not based on science.
Exhibited in 3 ways:
1. Transductive reasoning: Reasoning by going from one specific isolated event to another.
2. Animism: Attribution of life and intentions to inamimate objects.
3. Artifacialism: Assumes environmental factors such as rain and thunder have been designed and made by people.
Preoperational age children can only focus on one dimension at a time = CENTRATION.
Conservation: law that holds that properties of substances such as volume, mass and number remain the same even if you change their shape or arrangement.
Preoperational child has not mastered
reversibility. Quantities are the same when whole is broken into parts.
Appearance as Reality
A belief that an objecct's appearance tells you what the object is really like.
Appearance vs. Reality distinction: Understanding the difference between real events and mental events.
Including new objects or catagories in broader mental classes or categories
Requires child to focus on two aspects of a situation at once.
This skill is not observed during preoperational stage.
Example: 4 cats and 4 dogs. Are there more animals than dogs? Requires child to undertand that cats count as animals but do not count as dogs.
What are the 3 factors that influence a child's cognitive development?
1. Scaffolding: Temporary support provided by a parent or teacher to learning children; guidance by adult decreases as child is capable of carrying out task on their own.
2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): The gap between what chilren are capable of doing alone and what they could do with help from others; adults or older children help in guiding by gearing assistance to children's capabilities.
3. Inner Speech: At first children's thoughts are spoken out loud, which serves to regulate their behavior.
Gradually thoughts become internalizied, which is the ultimate binding of language and thought.
Tend to "talk it through" during difficult tasks or after mistakes are made.
Effects of Early Childhood Education
Preschool education enables children to get an early start on achievement in school
Higher the SES, the greater the performance of standardized intelligence tests. Because of this, preschool programs such as Head Start began in the 1960's.
Environmental enrichment as well as parent eduction can enhance cognitive development of economically disadvantaged.
Development of Memory
By age 4, children can remember events from 1.5 yrs earlier.
Young children form scripts when describing what happens during a particular event; the script becomes more elaborate as it is told
Autobiographical memory (episodic memory): Memory for specific events is facilitated by childrren talking about them with others.
What are the factors that influence memory?
Order: Remember events that follow a logical order more easily.
Interest: Remember events that are more personal/intimate to them.
Cues from others: Remember more details when prompted from others.
KNOW THIS ABOUT MEMORY!!!!
Parental interest and questioning increases a preschooler's memory.
preschoolers learn an average of 9 new words a day
Word learning does not occur gradually
Development of Grammer
Children's sentence structure increases during 3rd year of life, due to grammer exposion including:
Articles (a, an, the)
Conunction (and, but, yet, or)
Possessive adjectives (yours, his, hers, my/mine)
Pronouns (she, him, one)
Overregulization: children acquire grammatical rules as they learn language; young ages apply rules rigidly even in cases where there are exceptions, ie: sat vs. sitted, saw vs. seed, etc.
First questions tend to be telegraphic (trunkated sentences with questioning inflection)
After 3yrs, why questions (what, who, where) appear earlier than others (why, when, which, how)
Later the child will add the verbs is, did and will to indicate whether the question concerns the present, past or future.
Practical application of language; children demonstrate pragmatics when they adjust speech to fit the social situation.