Psych-25, Chapter 7

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Psych-25, Chapter 7
2011-11-10 18:52:49
Early Childhood Psychology

Early Childhood (2-5 yrs): Physical & Cognitive Development
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  1. Growth Patterns
    • Growth rate slows during the prechool years.
    • Height: 2-3 inches/yr
    • Weight: 4-6 lbs/yr
    • Children become more slender as they get taller and lose baby fat.
    • Boys generally become slightly taller and heavier than girls.
  2. Brain Development
    • By 2 yrs old: 75% of adult weight (brain weight)
    • By 5 yrs: 90% of adult weight (" ")
    • Growth is due to continued myelinization.
    • Myelinization of the corpus collosum allows integration of logical and emotional functioning.
    • Brain shows plasticity.
  3. Brain placticity
    • The brain's ability to compensate for injuries to particular parts of the brain.
    • Is greatest in the first 2 years of life. Preschoolers with damage to language areas can overcome them due to plasticity.
    • Sprouting (growth of new dendrites) may contribute to the brain's plasticity; redundancy of neural connections may also contribute.
  4. Gross Motor Development
    • Movement which involves the large muscles used in locomotion.
    • As nervous system matures, maovements become more precise and coordinated.
    • Boys and girls are similar in motor skills.
    • Girls have slight advantage in balance and precision.
    • Boys have slight advantage in throwing and kicking
    • Rough and tumble play: Running, chasing, hitting, laughing, making faces.
    • Helps develope physical and social skills.
  5. Is rough and tumble play the same as aggression
    • No!
    • Aggressive behaviour: Hitting, pushing, taking, grabbing, anger.
    • Aggression does nothing to develope social skills.
  6. Physical Activity
    • Preschoolers spend an average of: 25 hours/week in large muscle activity.
    • The more physically active the parent, the more physically active the child.
    • Twin studies suggest heredity components of activity.
  7. Fine Motor Development
    • Fine motor skills include: control of wrists and fingers.
    • Developes slowly and lags behind gross motor skills
    • Buttoning, tying shoelaces, and stocking blocks, etc.
  8. Handedness
    • Emerges during infancy
    • By 7-11 months preferences for particular hand increases
    • By age 4 clear preference for handedness
    • Lef-handedness associated with dyslexia, stuttering, high blood pressure, epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression.
    • Also associated with higher math ability, success in athletics, success in musical fields, architectural fields, and the arts.
    • Heredity contributes to handedness.
  9. Nutrition
    • 4-6 yr-olds need: 1400 cal/day.
    • 1-3 yr-olds need: 1000-1300 cal/day.
    • Appetite becomes erratic during 2nd and 3rd year of life.
    • Children are often fed too much salt and sugar.
    • Food preferences are somewhat enviornmental.
    • Repeated exposure to a food increaes the liking of it
    • Parents are the role model for which types of food a child will like to eat.
  10. Preoperational Stage
    • Lasts from age 2-7.
    • Characterized by the use of symbols to represent objects and relationships among them.
    • Language ability greatest symbolic activity during this stage
    • Scribbling/drawing begins at start of this stage.
    • Symbolism is also expressed as symbolic or pretend play.
  11. The preoperational Stage is Characterized by:
    • 1. Symbolic play
    • 2. Egocentrism
    • 3. Precausal thinking
    • 4. Conservation
    • 5. Appearance as reality
  12. 1. Symbolic Play
    • Engaged in from 15 months of age, increases in complexity as child ages.
    • Requires cognitive sophistication because it requires child to use and recollect symbols (things he has learned about or experienced).
    • First engaged in pretend play at:
    • 12-13 mo: Perform familiar activites (feed self/doll)
    • 15-20 mo: Feed a doll (shift focus from self to others)
    • 30 mo: Doll is feeding self.
    • 4-5 years: dolls comb hair, have teaparties, help doll drink, etc.
  13. Egocentrism
    • Children do not understand that others do not see the world as they do.
    • One dimensional thinking: ME! (The "self.") Incapable of seeing another person's perspective.
    • Measured by Three Mountians Test. (Developed by Piaget)
  14. Precausal Thinking
    • Reasoning about events that is egocentric and not based on science.
    • Exhibited in 3 ways:
    • 1. Transductive reasoning: Reasoning by going from one specific isolated event to another.
    • 2. Animism: Attribution of life and intentions to inamimate objects.
    • 3. Artifacialism: Assumes environmental factors such as rain and thunder have been designed and made by people.
  15. Conservation
    • Preoperational age children can only focus on one dimension at a time = CENTRATION.
    • Conservation: law that holds that properties of substances such as volume, mass and number remain the same even if you change their shape or arrangement.
    • Preoperational child has not mastered reversibility. Quantities are the same when whole is broken into parts.
  16. Appearance as Reality
    • A belief that an objecct's appearance tells you what the object is really like.
    • Appearance vs. Reality distinction: Understanding the difference between real events and mental events.
  17. Class Inclusion
    • Including new objects or catagories in broader mental classes or categories
    • Requires child to focus on two aspects of a situation at once.
    • This skill is not observed during preoperational stage.
    • Example: 4 cats and 4 dogs. Are there more animals than dogs? Requires child to undertand that cats count as animals but do not count as dogs.
  18. What are the 3 factors that influence a child's cognitive development?
    • 1. Scaffolding: Temporary support provided by a parent or teacher to learning children; guidance by adult decreases as child is capable of carrying out task on their own.
    • 2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): The gap between what chilren are capable of doing alone and what they could do with help from others; adults or older children help in guiding by gearing assistance to children's capabilities.
    • 3. Inner Speech: At first children's thoughts are spoken out loud, which serves to regulate their behavior.
    • Gradually thoughts become internalizied, which is the ultimate binding of language and thought.
    • Tend to "talk it through" during difficult tasks or after mistakes are made.
  19. Effects of Early Childhood Education
    • Preschool education enables children to get an early start on achievement in school
    • Higher the SES, the greater the performance of standardized intelligence tests. Because of this, preschool programs such as Head Start began in the 1960's.
    • Environmental enrichment as well as parent eduction can enhance cognitive development of economically disadvantaged.
  20. Development of Memory
    • By age 4, children can remember events from 1.5 yrs earlier.
    • Young children form scripts when describing what happens during a particular event; the script becomes more elaborate as it is told
    • Autobiographical memory (episodic memory): Memory for specific events is facilitated by childrren talking about them with others.
  21. What are the factors that influence memory?
    • Order: Remember events that follow a logical order more easily.
    • Interest: Remember events that are more personal/intimate to them.
    • Cues from others: Remember more details when prompted from others.
    Parental interest and questioning increases a preschooler's memory.
  23. language development
    • preschoolers learn an average of 9 new words a day
    • Word learning does not occur gradually
    • Fast -Mapping:
  24. Development of Grammer
    • Children's sentence structure increases during 3rd year of life, due to grammer exposion including:
    • Articles (a, an, the)
    • Conunction (and, but, yet, or)
    • Possessive adjectives (yours, his, hers, my/mine)
    • Pronouns (she, him, one)
    • Prepositions
    • Overregulization: children acquire grammatical rules as they learn language; young ages apply rules rigidly even in cases where there are exceptions, ie: sat vs. sitted, saw vs. seed, etc.
  25. Asking Questions
    • First questions tend to be telegraphic (trunkated sentences with questioning inflection)
    • After 3yrs, why questions (what, who, where) appear earlier than others (why, when, which, how)
    • Later the child will add the verbs is, did and will to indicate whether the question concerns the present, past or future.
  26. Pragmatics
    • Social language
    • Practical application of language; children demonstrate pragmatics when they adjust speech to fit the social situation.