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What do lymph nodes contain that help clear the lymph of infectious pathogens?
When Lymph nodes become infected they become swollen; these swollen lymph nodes are called:
T/F: Lymph nodes are the site of B & T cell staging.
T/F: Both humoral and cell mediated immune responses are triggered in the lymph nodes.
Why is it difficult for pathogen to multiply in the blood?
Lack of iron
If our defenses fail and pathogens in our blood cause our RBC's to lyse, what could be the result?
The lysed RBC's could release their iron and the pathogens could rapidly multiply
What are the most common structures affected by endocarditis?
What is Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis (SBE)?
Often due to streptococci of low virulence, progresses slowly, mild to moderate illness
What causes Acute Bacterial Endocarditis (ABC)?
Usually due to highly virulent S. aureus illness over days to weeks more serious than SBE
How are individuals with damaged heart valves more suseptible to endocarditis?
Blood clots can attach to damaged heart valves giving bacteria a place to colonize
What procedures are a common cause of bacteremia?
What are some symptoms of endocarditis?
- Fever of unknown origon
- Continuous presence of microbes in the blood stream
- Vegitation on heart valves
The presence of pus-forming or other pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or tissue
What is a serious medical condition caused by a whole-body inflammatory state caused by an infection?
Septicemia is frequently associated with fever and elevated WBC's and lymphangitis, what is the cause of those symptoms?
The hosts' immune systems response
What condition accounts for 1 - 2% of all hospitilizations and up to 25% of ICU bed utilizations?
Describe the three stages of Septicemia:
- 1. Sepsis: evidence of infection due to release of cytokines causes inflammatory response - signs and symptoms include: fever, chills, accelerated breathing and heart rate
- 2. Sever Sepsis: failure of one or more organs accompanied by a drop in blood pressure
- 3. Septic Shock: occurs when the low blood pressure can no longer be conrolled by fluid therapy
Why is septic shock usually caused by gram-negative bacteria?
Gram negative have endotoxins in their cell wall that are released during cell lysis. This means administering antibiotocs could aggrevate the situation.
Do gram + or gram - bacteria usually cause nosocomial infections?
What is puerperal sepsis and what microb causes it?
Childbirth fever; S. pyogens
Describe Septicemia Plague:
Black plague: bacterial endotoxins cause blood clots leading to the red/black patchy rash. People would often die the first day sysmptoms appear.
Describe the Bubonic Plague:
- Rodents infected flease that bit people - caused by y. pestis when it reached the lymph system causing severe hemorrhage
- 2 forms: Septicemic (Black) and Pneumonic Plague
Describe the pneumonic plague:
Organism affects lungs and is transmitted person-to-person via droplets
What, when, where was the 2nd plague?
-Black death; Central Asia, Euorpe and Africa
What, when, where was the third plague?
What, when, where was the first recorded plague?
Plague of Justinian; 541-542
What is Tularemia?
Endemic zoonotic disease spread by vectors. Common reservois are prairie dogs and rabbits. Symptoms include fatigue, dizziness, muscle pain, fever, loss of appetite and nausea
What is Fancisella tarlarensis used as a biological warfare agent?
- Easy to aerosolize
- highly effective, only need 10 bacteria to infect
What is relapsing fever? What is it transmitted by?
- Repeated episodes of fever and flu-like symptoms
- Transmitted by arthropod vectors like fleas and ticks
What is the reservoir for Lyme borreliosis? What is a common sign?
- White footed mouse
- bulls-eye rash
What is the common name for Bartonella hensilae?
Cat scratch fever
Describe Bartonella hensilae.
- Cat scratch fever
- Tender buboes, puss filled papules at site of infection
- 7-14 days to see symptoms
- treatment for this gram- is Azithromycin
- B. antroacis, aerobic gram+ endospore in soil
- Callle are commonly infected in the western U.S. that produces toxins and kills macrophages
Describe Cutaneous Antrhax:
- Enters through lesion on skin
- accounts for 90% of natural cases in humans
Describe Gastrointestinal Anthrax:
- Caused by ingestion of infected undercooked food
- Symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea
- Mortality 50%
- Spores inhaled into lungs and enter the blood stream
- Most dangerous type of Anthrax
- Must be caught immediately or 100% mortality
- Caused by Rickettsia Prowazekii
- Common in very unsanitary conditions and transmitted by vectors
- Prolonged fever of 2+ weeks and subcutaneous hemorrhaging
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever:
- Transmitted by dog tick, common in southern U.S.
- Fever and spotted rash on hands/feet
- Responds to antibiotics, but no vax
- Fast growing tumor of the jaw
- Common in children living in Africa
- Caused by the Epstein Barr virus
- Herpes virus
- Causes inectious mono, especially in AIDS patients
- Associated with Burkett's lymphoma
Is Cytomegalovirus (CMV) dangerous to healthy peolple?
No, most of us will contract it during our lives
What does CMV stand for?
Why is CMV usually associated with AIDS patients?
85% of AIDS patients will get an eye infection caused by CMV that can result in blindness if not treated.
What is yellow fever transmitted by, where is it endemic and why is it called 'yellow fever'?
- Endemic in tropical locations
- Called yellow fever because the second stage includes liver damage which causes jaundice
Hemorrhagic fever, transmitted by infected blood
What are signs of Chagas Disease?
- Enlargement of spleen or liver
Toxoplasmosis is a disease of what?
Blood and Lymph
What animal is associated with toxoplasmosis? Who should be most concerned with it?
- Toxoplasmosis is carried by cats
- Pregnant women should be careful because it can cause birth defects and stillbirth
What is special about the fever associated with malaria?
Fevers come and go every two to three days
What is malaria caused by, transported by and how does it kill?
Malaria is caused by a parasite, it is transported by mosquitoes and it kills by destroying RBCs resulting in anemia
What does the lymph system consist of, include relevant organs?
Lymph, Lymph vessels, Lymph nodes, thymus, tonsils, appendix and spleen
Are B cells humoral or cell mediated?
Are T cells humoral or cell mediated?
What does SIRS stand for?
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrom (sepsis)
Who isolated Bacillus anthracis in 1877?
Necrosis of soft tissue cause by ischemia, it provides a place for anaerobic bacteria to grow
T/F: Gangrene can result from a complication of diabetes.
What is Gas Gangrene and what are some treatments?
As the microbes grow they ferment carbohydrates in the tissue and form gases. Amputation or removal of necrotic tissue is most common. Can also try hyperbaric chamber (O2 filled to kill anaerobes)
How did the Bubonic Plague get its name?
Because of the formation of buboes in the arm pit or groin
T/F: Spirochetes cause relapsing fever
What are the symptoms of Lymes Disease at various stages?
- Stage 1: Bulls-eye rash
- Stage 2: very irregular heartbeat, may require pacemaker - incapacitating, chronic neurological symptoms such as facial paralysis, meningitis and encephalitis
- Stage 3: arthritis and joint damage
What is encephalitis?
Inflammation of the brain