Card Set Information
18th Century Empires, SQ Pages 23-32
The "Great War for Empire" was also known as:
The Seven Years' War.
What country was known as Britain's "jewel in the crown"?
India, which was included in Britains imperial takeover in the 19th century.
Who were considered the Three Pioneers of Europe who became passive in attempts to expand in 1715?
Portugal, Dutch Netherlands, and Spain.
Portugal had control over ________ with the _______ __ _______ in 1715.
Brasil, Peace of Utrecht.
Active competition in the 18th century in Europe was between:
The British and the French
In what year was Dutch Netherlands (United Provinces) Europe's greatest maritime power?
What was the approximate population of the Dutch in the 18th century?
2.5 million. This small population made it difficult for the country to progress like the British and the French.
How many provincial oligarchies did the Dutch have and how successful were they?
7; they were not successful. Failing to act together, they could not ensure defense to the country.
After they Dutch had begun to fail economically, what kept them from collapsing completely?
Their financial institutions.
The Dutch were the first to utilize and perfect these three things:
Paper currency, the stock market, and a central bank.
What were the three main stops of the Triangle trade according to the figure on page 24?
Newport, Gold Coast, and Barbados.
What were the four regions in which the rivalry between the French and the British played out?
West Indies, West Indian plantations (West Africa), North American continent, and India and other Asian lands.
What were the differences in how the French and British controlled their colonies?
French practiced absolutism, centralized structure controled these colonies from afair. British colonies were independent from eachother and British Crown held jurisdiction over them.
Britain, France, and Prussia applied these principles to regulate their trade.
Regulation of trade by the state in order to increase a state's power over its neighbors.
How did countries ensure strong trade between its colonies and itself?
Through tariffs, elaborate regulations, bounties and prohibitions.
Who was John Hancock?
Responsible for smuggling food supplies from Boston to French West Indian planters. His actions were profitable.
Naval ports were said to have been strategically placed in these three locations:
Africa, India, and the Caribbean.
The value of the French commerce quadrupled during what century?
The 18th century.
By 1770's, commerce with their colonies accounted for what fraction of the total volume of British and French foreign trade?
Trade in the West Indies mostly focused on what?
The value of French imports from the West Indies increased from _______ to _______ between 1716 and 1788.
16 million to 185 million livres.
The West Indies were ideal colonies because of two main reasons:
1. Tropical Climate 2. Isolation from European society (made slavery possible).
Name crops that were raised in the West Indies colonies.
Tobacco, cotton, indigo, and sugar.
What was the chief slaving port in North America?
Newport, Rhode Island
How could Port cities make profits with their materials?
By refining or finishing colonial products and then re-exporting them.
What was France's Cbief slaving port?
How many slaves were transported to the British Caribbean?
How many slaves were transported to British North America (to 1786)?
How many slaves were transported to the US after 1786?
How many slaves were transported to the French Caribbean?
How many slaves were transported to the Dutch Caribbean?
How many slaves were transported to Brazil?
How many slaves were transported to Spanish America?
At the height of the Atlantic slave traffic, how many blacks were being removed from Africa annually?
The population of Saint-Domingue around 1790 comprised of about how many slaves?
1/2 a million.
More than _________