Unit 4 Lecture - Differences & Definitions

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Unit 4 Lecture - Differences & Definitions
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2011-11-03 22:16:39
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Unit 4 Lecture - Differences & Definitions
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  1. Major Characteristics Of Phylum Annelida
    • Exhibit metamerism
    • hydrostatic skeleton
    • chitinous setae in all but the leeches
  2. Compare the Nervous System of the three worm phyla: Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, Annelida
    • P: Nervous Ladder
    • N: Ganglia and Nerve Cords
    • A: Well Developed
  3. Compare the Digestive System of the three worm phyla: Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, Annelida
    • P: Incomplete Digestive Tract
    • N: Complete Digestive Tract
    • A: Complete Digestive Tract
  4. Compare the Circulatory System of the three worm phyla: Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, Annelida
    • P: None
    • N: None
    • A: Closed
  5. Compare the Excretory System of the three worm phyla: Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, Annelida
    • P: Flame Cells
    • N:
    • A: Paired Metanephridia
  6. Compare the Reproductive System of the three worm phyla: Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, Annelida
    • P: Mainly Sexual, most monecious
    • N: Sexual, most monecious
    • A: Sexual, monecious & dioecious
  7. Digestive System of Phyla Annelida, Arthopoda, Echinodermata
    • Annelida: Complete Digestive Tract
    • Arthopoda: Complete Digestive Tract
    • Echinodermata: Complete Digestive Tract
  8. Nervous System of Phyla Annelida, Arthopoda, Echinodermata
    • Annelida: Well developed nervous system and sense organs
    • Arthopoda:Well developed nervous system and complex sense organs
    • Echinodermata: Reduced Nervous System with few sense organs
  9. Respiratory System of Phyla Annelida, Arthopoda, Echinodermata
    • Annelida: Gills, Skin, & Parapodia
    • Arthopoda: gills, book gills, book lungs, body surface, and tracheae (branching of anumber of tubes, within almost all terestial), or even a combination
    • Echinodermata: papulae, bursae, tube feet, skin or respiratory tree
  10. Reproduction System of Phyla Annelida, Arthopoda, Echinodermata
    • Annelida: Sexual Reproduction. Dioecious and Monecious
    • Arthopoda: Sexual reproduction-dioecious, internal fertilizers, most (about 99%) exhibiting metamorphosis
    • Echinodermata: Sexual Reproduction. Dioecious, External fertilizers
  11. Excretion System of Phyla Annelida, Arthopoda, Echinodermata
    • Annelida: by paired metanephridia
    • Arthopoda: through coxal, antennal and maxillary glands, and Malpighian tubules
    • Echinodermata: None
  12. Circulatory System of Phyla Annelida, Arthopoda, Echinodermata
    • Annelida: Closed circulatory system
    • Arthopoda: Open circulatory system
    • Echinodermata: None
  13. Major Characteristics Of Phylum Arthopoda
    • Advancd metamerism resulting in tagmata
    • Highly adaptable jointed appendages, seen for the first time
    • Highly adaptable exoskeleton and complex muscle system
  14. Major Characteristics Of Phylum Echinodermata
    • no metamerism
    • endoskeleton made up of ossicles
    • complex water vascular system for movement
    • autotomy and regeneration common
  15. Contrast The Various Strategies used by annelids to obtain food
    • Polychaetes: filter feeding with radioles. active predator. detritus feeding with tentacles
    • Oligochaetes: Detritus feeding with pumping pharynx
    • Hirudineans: predators, detritus & fluid feeding with proboscis or cutting plates
  16. Contrast Reproduction Among Annelid Classes
    • Polychaeta:
    • Dioecious
    • No permanent sex organs
    • No clitellum
    • External fertilization

    • Oligochaeta:
    • Monoecious
    • Permanent sex organs
    • Permanent clitellum
    • Internal fertilization

    • Hirudineans:
    • Monoecious
    • Permanent sex organs
    • Temporary clitellum, only during mating season
    • Internal fertilization
  17. Detail Arthopod and Echinoderm Ecological Information
    • Arthopod:
    • Over 1.3 or 1.4 million extant species
    • Found on land, in the air and fresh and marine waters
    • Found from polar to tropical regions and in the bodies of other organisms

    • Echinoderm:
    • All members are marine organisms
    • Some are carnivores, detritivores, and herbivores
    • Found from polar to tropical regions in all depths of the ocean
  18. Evaluate the 6 reasons for arthopod abundance and diversity
    1) A versatile and adaptable exoskeleton: Tergum (top), Pleura( side), Sternum (bottom)held together by cartilage

    2) Advanced segmentation and paired appendages, giving them the versatility of differentadaptations. They have metamerism w/o constraint of worm like body

    3) Oxygen pumped directly to the tissues, meaning there is more ATP and more lifeprocesses

    4) Highly developed sense organs

    5) Complex behavioral patterns

    6) Limited intraspecific competition through metamorphosis
  19. Major factors that have led to the diversity and number of insects
    • 1) Structural modifications to the mouth, legs, wings, and alimentary canal
    • 2) Well adapted to dry environments
    • 3) Light weight, highly adaptable exoskeleton
  20. Define Thermoregulation and Differentiate Between Behavioral and Physiological Methods
    Thermoregulation: The acquiring, regulating and maintaining of body temperature through physiological andbehavioral means

    Physiological: using body structures to generate, maintain, or release heat

    Behavioral: using body actions and movements to obtain, maintain, or release heat
  21. Define Metamere, Metamerism and explain its importance
    • Metamere: a repeating body segment aka Somite
    • Metamerism: the division of the body into a series of similar segments, each containing repeating arrangements of organs and systems

    Important because if one segment is damaged, then other segments can make up for the damage

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