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2011-11-03 22:24:43
Digestive System

Digestive System
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  1. List the layers of the alimentary canal wall in order?
    • 1. mucosa
    • 2. submilaris externa
    • 3. muscularis externa
    • 4. serosa
  2. What are the locations of the organs within quadrants and/or relative to other functions?
    • 1. stomach: ULQ, next to diaphragm
    • 2. pancreas: retroperitoneal, inferior and posterior to stomach
    • 3. liver: mainly URQ, next to diaphragm
    • 4. gallbladder: inferior to liver
    • 5. appendix: LRQ, attached to cecum
  3. List end define the processs that sid movement through the alimentary canal?
    • 1. movement
    • 2. mechanical digestion: physical breakdown
    • 3. chemical digestion: chemical breakdown
    • 4. absorption: transfer of nutrients > blood to lymphatics
    • 5. excretion: waste elimation
  4. List and define the process of mechanical digestion?
    • 1. mastication = chewing
    • 2. churning = tumbling
    • 3. segmentation = isolated contractions
  5. List substances in general that aid chemical digestion?
    • 1. HCI
    • 2. bile salts
    • 3. enzymes
  6. What is the pH of saliva when it flows? And what accounts for it?
    • a. alkaline
    • b. bicarbonate: buffers acid
  7. What is the location of the gastroesophageal?
    outlet of esophogus
  8. What is the location of the pyloric sphincter?
  9. What is the hormone of the stomach?
    gastrin, stimulates acid and pepsin secretions
  10. What are the exocrine secretions of the stomach and what are their functions?
    • 1. mucus
    • 2. intrinsic factor
    • 3. hydrochloric acid- bacteriostatic and activates pepsin
    • 4. pepsin- starts protein diestion, protein > polypeptides
  11. What are the exocrine secretions of the pancreas and what are their functions? Where do they act?
    • a. sodium bicarbonate- neutralize acid, optimal pH for enzymes
    • b. amylase- CHO digestion
    • c. lipase- fat digestion
    • d. polypeptidases- protein digestion, activated in small intestines....ex: trypsin
    • Act in sm. intestine
  12. What are the funvtions of the liver?
    • a. protein metabolism / albumin + clottine factors
    • b. CHO metabolism glycogen <--> glucose
    • c. lipid metabolism ? cholesterol synthesis
    • d. ketone body synthesis / used by tissues for energy
    • e. hormone metabolism
    • f. resistance / phagocytosos & detox.
    • g. blood reservoir
    • h. vitamin & mineral storage
    • i. bile secretion > bile ducts > gallbladder or duodenum
  13. What are the substances found in bile, and what are their functions or fate?
    • a. bilirubin > jaundice
    • b. cholesterol > excreted
    • c. bile salts
    • 1. fat digestion in sm. int. via emulsification / globules > droplets
    • 2. fat absorption
  14. What is the function cell type of the liver? What % loss disrupts homostasis?
    hepatocytes....80% loss
  15. What are the blood vessels that supply the liver and describe their oxygen and nutrient contents?
    • 1. hepatic artery - oxygen rich
    • 2. portal vein - nutrient rich
  16. What part of the sm. int. receives enzymes and bicarbonate from the pancreas as well as bile from the liver or gallbladder?
  17. What is the function of the gallbladder?
    stores bile
  18. What are the parts of the sm. int. from proximal to distal?
    • deudunum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  19. What is the function of villi and microvilli?
    increase surface area
  20. What are the hormones produced by the sm. int. and what are their function?
    • a. secretin
    • b. cholecystokinin (CCK)
  21. What organ is the major site for digestion and absorption?
    sm. intestine
  22. What is the final product resulting from digestion of protein and carbohydrates in the small intestine? And into what are these products absorbed for transport?
    • 1. polypeptides (pro.) > AA > hepatic portal blood
    • 2. polysaccharides (CHO) > momosaccharides > hepatic portal blood
  23. Define emulsification?
    breakdown of fat , globules > droplets
  24. Where does emuldification occur?
    sm. intestine
  25. What substance promotes emulsification?
  26. What lipoprotein is triglyceride incorporated into after its digested and absorbed into the sm. intestinal cells?
    monoglyceride and fatty acids
  27. Fat, as part of these lipoproteins, is then absorbed into what for transport?
    chylomicrons > lymphatics
  28. What are the parts of the large intestine from proximal to distal?
    • a. cecum
    • b. colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid)
    • c. rectum
  29. What are the functions of the large intestine?
    • 1. absorption
    • 2. fecal consistency (proximal to distal)
    • 3. the gas we pass by Shinata Cho
  30. The gas we pass correctly points out that most gas is the result of what?
    swallowed air
  31. Intestinal trauma or surgery has what effect on the intestines?
    sm. intestine shutdown