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List the layers of the alimentary canal wall in order?
- 1. mucosa
- 2. submilaris externa
- 3. muscularis externa
- 4. serosa
What are the locations of the organs within quadrants and/or relative to other functions?
- 1. stomach: ULQ, next to diaphragm
- 2. pancreas: retroperitoneal, inferior and posterior to stomach
- 3. liver: mainly URQ, next to diaphragm
- 4. gallbladder: inferior to liver
- 5. appendix: LRQ, attached to cecum
List end define the processs that sid movement through the alimentary canal?
- 1. movement
- 2. mechanical digestion: physical breakdown
- 3. chemical digestion: chemical breakdown
- 4. absorption: transfer of nutrients > blood to lymphatics
- 5. excretion: waste elimation
List and define the process of mechanical digestion?
- 1. mastication = chewing
- 2. churning = tumbling
- 3. segmentation = isolated contractions
List substances in general that aid chemical digestion?
- 1. HCI
- 2. bile salts
- 3. enzymes
What is the pH of saliva when it flows? And what accounts for it?
- a. alkaline
- b. bicarbonate: buffers acid
What is the location of the gastroesophageal?
outlet of esophogus
What is the location of the pyloric sphincter?
What is the hormone of the stomach?
gastrin, stimulates acid and pepsin secretions
What are the exocrine secretions of the stomach and what are their functions?
- 1. mucus
- 2. intrinsic factor
- 3. hydrochloric acid- bacteriostatic and activates pepsin
- 4. pepsin- starts protein diestion, protein > polypeptides
What are the exocrine secretions of the pancreas and what are their functions? Where do they act?
- a. sodium bicarbonate- neutralize acid, optimal pH for enzymes
- b. amylase- CHO digestion
- c. lipase- fat digestion
- d. polypeptidases- protein digestion, activated in small intestines....ex: trypsin
- Act in sm. intestine
What are the funvtions of the liver?
- a. protein metabolism / albumin + clottine factors
- b. CHO metabolism glycogen <--> glucose
- c. lipid metabolism ? cholesterol synthesis
- d. ketone body synthesis / used by tissues for energy
- e. hormone metabolism
- f. resistance / phagocytosos & detox.
- g. blood reservoir
- h. vitamin & mineral storage
- i. bile secretion > bile ducts > gallbladder or duodenum
What are the substances found in bile, and what are their functions or fate?
- a. bilirubin > jaundice
- b. cholesterol > excreted
- c. bile salts
- 1. fat digestion in sm. int. via emulsification / globules > droplets
- 2. fat absorption
What is the function cell type of the liver? What % loss disrupts homostasis?
What are the blood vessels that supply the liver and describe their oxygen and nutrient contents?
- 1. hepatic artery - oxygen rich
- 2. portal vein - nutrient rich
What part of the sm. int. receives enzymes and bicarbonate from the pancreas as well as bile from the liver or gallbladder?
What is the function of the gallbladder?
What are the parts of the sm. int. from proximal to distal?
What is the function of villi and microvilli?
increase surface area
What are the hormones produced by the sm. int. and what are their function?
- a. secretin
- b. cholecystokinin (CCK)
What organ is the major site for digestion and absorption?
What is the final product resulting from digestion of protein and carbohydrates in the small intestine? And into what are these products absorbed for transport?
- 1. polypeptides (pro.) > AA > hepatic portal blood
- 2. polysaccharides (CHO) > momosaccharides > hepatic portal blood
breakdown of fat , globules > droplets
Where does emuldification occur?
What substance promotes emulsification?
What lipoprotein is triglyceride incorporated into after its digested and absorbed into the sm. intestinal cells?
monoglyceride and fatty acids
Fat, as part of these lipoproteins, is then absorbed into what for transport?
chylomicrons > lymphatics
What are the parts of the large intestine from proximal to distal?
- a. cecum
- b. colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid)
- c. rectum
What are the functions of the large intestine?
- 1. absorption
- 2. fecal consistency (proximal to distal)
- 3. the gas we pass by Shinata Cho
The gas we pass correctly points out that most gas is the result of what?
Intestinal trauma or surgery has what effect on the intestines?
sm. intestine shutdown