AP Psych

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AP Psych
2011-11-03 23:10:04
infancy childhood

childhood development
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  1. Marturation
    • biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively influenced by experience.
    • commonalities: standing before walking, nouns before adjectives, etc
  2. Schema
    • a concept framework that organizes and interprets information.
    • mental molds into which the mind pours experiences.
  3. Assimilate
    • interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
    • Dog-------------> Doggie
  4. Accomodation
    • adapting ones current understandings (schemas) to incorperate new information
    • from cow to moose to mommy and baby moose
  5. Cognition
    • All the mental activites associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, amd communicating.
    • childeren move from one cognitive plateau to the next
  6. Sensorimotor stage
    • In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth till about age 2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions amd motor activites.
    • thru looking hearing touching and grasping
  7. Object permanence
    • the awareness that an object continues to exist when not percived.
    • Piaget would put is beret over a toy, and the child would not search for it.
  8. Preoperational stage
    in piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 yearso0 during which a child learns to use language but dies not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
  9. Conservation
    • The principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the form of the objects.
    • like having to recount M&Ms once they have been split into two groups.
  10. Egocentrism
    • In Piaget's theory the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
    • covering one's own eyes to be invisible to others
  11. Theory of mind
    • ppl's ideas about their own and other's mental states--about their own feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
    • pencils in a Band-Aid box
  12. Autism
    • a disorder that appears in childhood is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understading of other's states of mind.
    • Retarded...:communication, social interaction, and understanding of other's minds.
  13. Concrete operational stage
    • In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gian the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
    • like grasping jokes that require basic linguistics
  14. Formal Operational Stage
    • In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning at about age 12) during which ppl begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
    • ble to solve hypothetical "if, then" problems and such.
  15. Stranger anxiety
    • the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months.
    • helps protect babies 8 months and over
    • it's a sign of a healthy attachment to the parent(s)
  16. Attachment
    • an emotional tie with another person: shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress during seperation.
    • powerful survival impulse
    • infants prefer caressing and soft mothers
  17. Critical Period
    an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stumuli or experiences produces proper development.
  18. Imprinting
    the process by which Certain aniamls form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
  19. Basic Trust
    • According to Erikson's theory, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; t be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with reponsive care-givers.
    • the neglected will have trust issues
  20. self concept
    • the sense of one's own identity and personal worth
    • after 15-18 months, children have self concept
    • cousin to self esteem