AHTG

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AHTG
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  1. Sovereignty
    Ultimate Political power- having the final say
  2. European enlightenment
    18th century philosphical movement that proposed individual self-interest, rather than greek virtue or christain humility, as the motivating factor in human behavior
  3. Auxiliary precautions
    Structure in the governmetn to make it more difficult for power to become concentrated in any one groups hands, seen by the founders as a backup system to virtue. (behind bicameral legislature, indirect election, enumeration)
  4. Bicameral legislature
    a legislature in which there are two separate divisions or houses
  5. Hume's filter/ indirect election
    When the people select the most virtuous representatives, who in turn select even more vituous government officials./ when government officials are elected by previousy chosen representatives, and not diretly by the people.( one of three structural devices behind the constitution)
  6. counterpoise
    a force, influence, or weight that counter-balances another, e.g. the roles of prosecutor and defense attorney in a trial. (
  7. republic
    Latin res publica, the "public thing" when citizens of the political state govern themselves rather than submit to a monarch, despot, or oligarchy
  8. Constitutional mechanisms
    parts of the consittuition that help organize and control power
  9. constitutional drift
    when power in the government does not remain where it was originally placed
  10. proportional representation
    party representation in the legislative body is closely tied to the national or regional vote of that party
  11. Separation of Powers
    dividing powers of government between the separate branches
  12. Republican problem
    the question of how the benefits of self-government can be enjoyed without incurring its inherent problems
  13. constitutional structure
    the nature and oarrangement of mechanisms in a consitution that organize the government
  14. federalism
    the dividing of powers between the national and state governments
  15. checks and balances
    bridging the separation of powers between branches of government by placing part of each power within two separate branches.
  16. confederation
    defensive alliance among sovereing equals.(between states, but doesn't work because it doesn't give government enough sovereignty)
  17. John Adams
    (1735-1826) Founding Father and proponent fo a bicameral legislature, defended the British soldiers involved in teh Boston Massacre and later served as 2nd President of the US, where he made his "midnight appointments" that were the basis of teh Marbury v. Madison case.
  18. Roger Sherman
    (1721-1793) Connecticut delegate to the Constitutional Convention, proposed the great compromise of one legislative house having proportional representation while the other had equal representation
  19. William Paterson
    (1745-1806) New Jersey representative at the Constitutional Convention who presented the New Jersey Plan, which gave equal representation to states regardlesss of size or population.
  20. Benjamin Franklin
    (1706-1790) One of the most well-known Founders, Franklin was also a leading printer, scientist, inventor, and diplomat. He helped secure France as an ally during the Revolutionary War
  21. James Madison
    (1751-1836) Fourth President of the US and founding Father, Madison is often called the "Father of the Constitution." He co-authored The Federalist with Hamilton and Jay, and helped Jefferson create the Democratic-Republican Party.
  22. Gouverneur Morris
    (1752-1816) Pennsylvania representative at the Constitutional Convention, Morris is credited with authoring large sections of the Constitution, including the Preamble
  23. George Mason
    (1725-1792) Virginia delegate to the Constituitonal Convention, Mason refused to sign the Constituion because it did not contaion a declaration fo rights. (Bill of Rights)
  24. James Wilson
    (1742-1798) A primary framer of the Constitution, Wilson proposed the three-fifths compromise for slave representation and election of the president by the people. he was also key in Pennsylvania's ratification fo the Constitution.
  25. Charles Pinckney
    (1757-1824) A South Carolina representative to the Constitutional Convention, Pinckney was a strong promoter fo Federalism and helped persuade ratification of the Constitution in South Carolina
  26. George Washington
    (1732-1799) Known as the "Father of His Country," General Washington led the Continental Army to victory during the Revolutionary War, presided over the Constituinal Convention, and was elected as the First President of the US
  27. Greek word stasis
    their histories in the ancient world were fraught with wars, revoltuions, palace coups, and a pandemic factional turmoil
  28. arete
    Virtue
  29. Plato
    wrote The Republic, and argued for arete as the answer. he laid out a system for recruiting and training the best and brightest in Greek Society to hold teh reins of government, and for educating them in the highest performance of virtuous conduct.
  30. Aristotle
    still believed in virtue, but he tended to emphasize structural solutions to the Republicna Problem. By mixing and balancing elements of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy in a governmnet,. he supposed that power could be fragmented and shared among various groups and interests, the result being balance and stability
  31. John Adams became excited about this prospect he began writing a comparative analysis of American state constitutions.
    They thought of teh colonies as laboratories for the development of republican practice, with each state sharing its experiene with the others.
  32. human Nature in political situations
    People often behaved at variance to their professed idea.s, even at variance to their normal daily conduct;though angelic in their ideals, men could become monsters in practice.
  33. Confederations were never...
    intended to be true governmets, for they lacked the sovereignty that government requires
  34. Those who drafeted the Articles of Confederation (the "constituiotn of the Confederation) in 1781 wanted the American Union to be more than what?
    A circle of friends
  35. Confederation. why not carry on that tradition?
    united the states against a common foe, conducted a war, and forged a peace. the confederation wasn't a failure, but it had all the weaknesses and shortcoming of its type
  36. no executive =
    No voice of American leadership
  37. no national court system =
    no way to resolve the growing number of disputes among the states
  38. The Articles of Confederation: Weaknesses
    • Individual states were sovereign
    • no executive
    • no power to enforce conflicts between states
    • no power to tx
    • no common currency, exchange disputes
    • not binding of passed
    • no judiciary to resolve disputes
    • state wars (Penn- Con)
    • Conflicts between state laws
    • State trade problems
    • States made own international treaties, states were played off each other
  39. The Articles of confederation: Strengths
    • Experience gained helped in the creation of the constituion
    • states actred as experimental labs
    • provided some solutions in convetion
    • got through the Revolutionary War
    • Ended western land claiming by states
    • Was a product of the people
  40. America was one of the largest potential import markets in teh world but under what would all these benefits almost go wholly unrealized?
    Confederation
  41. Aristocracy
    rule based on distinguished or wise ancestors and heritage
  42. Alexander Hamilton of New York and James Madison of Virginia were both focused on the failures of what?
    the Confederation
  43. Nationalists
    argued the case for a stronger american union, urged on by a vision of the US as a sovereign nation
  44. Shays' Rebellion
    Debt-ridden farmers in teh western part of the state rose in open rebellion adn shut down the local courts in order to escape foreclosure.
  45. Who said, "i feel infinitely more than i can express for the disorders which have arisen...... who besides a Tory could have foreseen, or a Briton predicted them?"
    George Washington
  46. The 55 Delegates were
    courageous, wise, temperate, possible, do-able, just, practical men of affairs. called "aristocrats" and "a master class," they are better described simply as America's best and brightest
  47. the "Primary framers"
    James Wilson, Roger Sherman, Gouverneur Morris, Charles Pinckney, William Pterson, George Mason, James Madison.
  48. James Madison plan would represent people more than states, and hence woud reflect a truly American sovereignty is like what today?
    State governments in his plan would fade into subordinate administrative units, much like counties today
  49. Pennsylvania State House is now called what?
    Independence Hall
  50. 1787 was a hot and sticky summer what were the delegates fighting about that made this summer so awful?
    Representation in states
  51. Equal representaion of states would apply to which house?
    the upper house of the legislature (Senate)
  52. Proportional representation, would appy to which house?
    lower house of the bicameral legislature (the House of Representatives)
  53. Who proposed the Great Compromise?
    Roger Sherman
  54. The Virginia Plan did what
    • Correct weaknesses of central government under the Articles
    • Bicameral legislature based on population
    • Became the House of Representaion based on population
  55. The New Jersey Plan did what?
    • Protect the sovereignty of the small states
    • unicmeral legislature with equal representation
    • became the Senate based on equal representaiton
  56. Federalism
    Dividng powers between the national and state governments
  57. The layers of federalism for State and National
    • State: Police Force, Education, Etc.
    • National: National Defense, interstate commerce, etc.
  58. Compromise on slavery
    • Slave trade could not be abolished for 20 years
    • slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for taxation and representaiton
    • fugitive slaves were to be returned to their owners
  59. "court party"
    power could and would corrupt
  60. What did madison call a backup system to virtue?
    auxiliary precautions: Structure in the government to make it more dificult for power to become concentrated in any one group's hands.
  61. As a guide for their structural architecture, the framers read:
    Adams's Thoughts on Govenrment, and also promininent writers of the European Enlightenment-- Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and David Hume; whose jaded view of human nature argued for virtue's fragility. but more than anything else they read Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws
  62. Three structural devices
    Bicameral legislature, Indirect election and Enumeration
  63. Lower house who would represent the people as a whole and be responsive to their desires, serve short temrs 2 years, and would have to return to the people repeatedly to renew their mandate.
    House of Representatives
  64. The upper house, representing the states, would be distant from the people, and serve six years, with staggered elections.
    Senate
  65. the founders' reading of who convinced them that the consent of teh people could be filtered to good purpose in ascending tiers fo representation
    David Hume
  66. Indirect election
    when goverment officials are elected by previously chosen represntatives, and not dirctly by the people
  67. Hume's filter or filters of consent
    when the poeple select the most virtuous representatives, who in turn select even more virtuous government officials
  68. Enumeration
    the written listing of the powers of government
  69. Congress has teh authority to....
    • lay and collect taxes
    • regulate commerce
    • coin money
    • set up a postal service and a patent office
    • declare war
    • raise and support a military establishment
    • and attend to certain other national concerns
  70. Montesquiu had discussed it, and provisions for it had been included in several state constitutions, but no one really knew how to make it work
    Separation of powers
  71. No separation of powers =
    Tyranny
  72. Total separation =
    Deadlock
  73. James Wilson thought of this idea
    the 3/5 compromise for slave representiaon and election of the President by the people, and Congress
  74. Checks and Balances
    bridging the separation fo powers between branches of government by placing part of each power within two separate branches
  75. Legislative: Shared Executive, and Shared Judicial
    • Shared Executive:
    • Overrides vetoes
    • impeachment Approve/deny treaties and appointments
    • sets up agencies and programs

    • Shared Judicial:
    • Impeach and remove judges
    • determines number of Supreme Curt Justices
    • Approves/rejects presidential judical appointments
  76. Executive: Shared legislative, shared judicial
    • Shared Legislative:
    • Vetoes legislation
    • suggests legislation
    • calls for special sessions
    • Negotiates treaties

    • Shared Judicial:
    • Nominates Judges
    • Pardons for federal offenses
  77. Judicial: Shared Legislative, shared judicial
    • Shared Legislative:
    • Determines constitutionality of laws (not explicit in the Constitution)
    • Interprets laws and treaties

    • Shared Executive:
    • Declares acts of President unconstitutional (not explicit in the Constitution)
    • Interprets treaties
  78. In the US Constitution the bicameral legislature was a ....
    check and balance
  79. the appointment of many high-ranking officials, Supreme Court justices, ambassadors and ministers, Cabinet officers, and the like, was to be made by whom?
    chief executive but subject to the advice and consent of the senate.
  80. Congress alone could declare war, but once that was done it was up to who to fight it?
    the president (comander-in-chief)
  81. if the President tried to negotiate a treaty the senate would have to ratifiy it by how much?
    2/3
  82. Polis
    city or city state, often self-governed by its citizens as the ancient Greek city-states were.
  83. Faction
    a group of individuals who share the same speciific political agenda
  84. The Constitution of young America was designed for a free people and a virtuous people, as John Admas stoutly asserted, and many of its mechanisms were based on teh idea that virtue, properly arranged, should play a decisive role in....
    political outcomes
  85. Counterpoise
    A force, influence, or weight that counter-balances another, e.g., the roles of prosecutor and defense attorney in a trial
  86. Federalists
    a political group that was for the ratification fo the Constitution, later used to describe members of the Federalist Party
  87. natural rights
    Fundamental rights granted by nature that government cannot abrogate and which governmnet was bound to protect
  88. judicial review
    Power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
  89. Anti-federalists
    Political group that was against the ratification of the Constitution
  90. civil rights
    Rights defined using narrow, concrete language, fll of specific terms and qualifiers
  91. The federalist
    Series of essays published in new York newspapers under the pseudonym Publius for the express purpose of gaining support for ratification of teh Constitution. Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
  92. "The Great Oughts"
    Natural rights that don't proclaim an "is" so much as an "ought" about the world-- the way things "should" be
  93. Edmund Randolph
    (1751-1813) Governor of Virginia and delegate to teh Constitutional Convention, Randolph refused to sign the Constitution in Philadelphia, but later was instrumental in persuading Virginia leadership to ratify it.
  94. Samuel Adams
    (1722-1803) Second cousin to John Adams, he was a Massachusetts sstatesman and organizer of the Boston Tea Party. Adams served in teh Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence, but was opposed to a strong federal government
  95. Alexander Hamilton
    (1755-1804) Hamilton served as the first Secretary of the Treasury under Washington and founded the Federalist Party. He also co-wrote the Federalist and championed a strong central government
  96. William Marbury
    A "Midnight Appointment" by John Adams, Marbury sued Secretary of State James Madison for delivery of his commission, which was being withheld by order of President Jefferson
  97. John Marshall
    (1755-1835) Fourth Chief Justice of the US, Marshall ruled that writs of mandamus were unconstitutional in the case Marbury v. Madison, thereby establishing a precedent for judicial review.
  98. George Mason
    (1725-1792) Virginia delegate to teh Constitutional Convention, Mason refused to sign the Constitution because it did not contain a declaration of rights.
  99. Patrick Henry
    (1736-1799) Best known for his famous "Give me liberty, or give me death" speech in teh Virginia House of Burgesses, Henry was an Anti-Federalist who pushed for a bill of rights to be added to the Constitution after its ratification
  100. John Jay
    (1745-1829) a Founding Father, Jay served as a President of the Continental Congress, co-wrote the federalist with Hamilton and Madison, and served as teh first Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court
  101. Thomas Jefferson
    (1743-1826) Third President of teh US, Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and an influuential Founding Father of the us. He founded the Democratic-Republican Party and promoted the idea of a small federal government.
  102. Elbridge Gerry, Endmund Randolph, George Mason
    Refused to sign the Constitution
  103. James Madison
    (1751-1836) Fourth President of the US and Founding Father, MAdison is often called the "father of teh Constitution." he co-authored the Federalist with Hamilton and Jay, and helped Jefferson create the Democratic-Republican Party.
  104. George Washington
    (1732-1799) Knwon as the "Father of His Country," General Washington led the Continental Army to victory during teh Revolutionary War, presided over the Constitutional Convention, and was elected as the First Presiden tof the US
  105. John Adams
    (1735-1826) Founding Father and proponent of a bicameral legislature, Adams defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre and later served as 2nd President of the US, where he made his "midnight appointments" that were the basis of the Marbury v. Madison case
  106. poleis
    City or city-state, often self-govenred by its citizens as were the ancient greek city-states
  107. who imagined the social compact, as the people themselves, not simply a few leaders, who must decide on their form of government
    Locke
  108. Supramajority
    a specified majority of voters. in the ratification of the Constituion almost 70% (9 of 13) of the states was required.
  109. Plato's cardinal virtues:
    wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice.
  110. Federalist and Antifederalist vision
    federalists' vision was of an impressive city upon a hill, that of the Anti-Federalists was more liek a neighborly Our Town
  111. the Constitution they had left the text vague by way of compromise
    the framers
  112. arugments against a bill fo rights
    • States already had bills of rights- it was unneeded
    • enumerating rights was very difficult
    • Enfrocing rights was very difficult
  113. Arguments for a bill of rights
    • The federalists promised during Ratificaiton debate
    • Arather large, powerful central government was just created
    • Could not hurt to enumerate things the government cannot do (especially in the shadow of King George)
  114. Three Great Oughts
    • Freedom of conscience
    • Freedom of expression
    • Right to privacy
  115. Alien and Seditition Acts
    laws passed by congress in 1798 to try and stifle the"seditious" writings of French propagandists against the neutrality of the Us with regards to teh French and British War
  116. Marbury v. Madison
    Supreme court case in which judicial review was established
  117. Original jursidiction
    the uthority of a court to hear certain kinds of cases first istead of waiting for those cases to be tried in a lower court
  118. Judiciary act of 1789
    Congressional act that formed the federal court system adn authorized writs of mandamus
  119. Midnight appointments
    judiciary appointments of Federalist judges made by Federalist president John Admas shortly before he left office, in response to the Democratic=Republican victory in the Congress and Presidency
  120. writ of mandamus
    a court document forcing an action by a certain party
  121. judicial review
    power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constituionality of laws
  122. Jeffersonians
    see Democratic-Republican Party
  123. Democratic-Repbulican Party
    Political party led by Jefferson and Madison that championed a society of slef-relient individuals to protect rights, a smaller federal government, and a narrow and strict interpretation of the Constitution
  124. Electoral college
    the group of electors selected by the people who are responsible for the selection of the president
  125. popular sovereignty
    the idea that power is created by and subject to the will of the people. it was the basis for Madison's proportional representation in Congress and a justification by the South for the continuance of slavery
  126. filtered consent
    When the selection of government officials is distanced from direct election by the people in order to protect against mob rule and public whim. filters include indirect election, time between elections, and size of representative regions
  127. single representative districts
    Representational structure where each geographical region elects its one representative independent of outcomes in other regions
  128. Hamiltonians
    see Federalist Party
  129. Federalist Party
    Political party founded by Hamilton and John Adams that envisioned a great Western empire with a strong federal government, and a broad interpretation of Constitutional powers.
  130. Whig Party
    England's first political party, organized in political opposition to the King; Americans later formed their own Whig party during the Jacksonian democracy era, but the two parties did not hold the same ideology
  131. structure
  132. original consent
    Giving consent to a provision or law the first time, such as the ratification of the Constitution
  133. majority
    The candidate who receives more than 50% of total votes wins
  134. Republican Party
    Political party that stems from the controversy over slavery. It was dedicated to keeping future territories and states free from slavery
  135. loyal opposition
    When losers in the political game continue to support the system, even when it is against their ideology
  136. periodic consent
    Giving continuing consent at certain intervals to a provision or law to which original consent has already been given
  137. plurality
    Receiving the largest percentage of the votes
  138. Thomas Jefferson
    (1743-1826) Third President of teh US, Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and an influuential Founding Father of the us. He founded the Democratic-Republican Party and promoted the idea of a small federal government.
  139. Alexander Hamilton
    (1755-1804) Hamilton served as the first Secretary of the Treasury under Washington and founded the Federalist Party. He also co-wrote the Federalist and championed a strong central government
  140. James Madison
    (1751-1836) Fourth President of the US and Founding Father, Madison is often called the "Father of the Constitution" He co-authored the Federalist with Hamilton and Jay, and helped jefferson create the Democratic-Republican Party
  141. George Washington
    (1732-1799) Known as the "Father of His Country," General Washington led the Continental Army to victory during the Revolutionary War, presided over the Constitutional Convention, and was elected as the First President of the United States
  142. John Adams
    (1735-1826) Foudning Father and proponent of a bicameral legislature, Adams defended the British soldiers involved in teh Boston Massacre and later served as 2nd President of the United States, Where he made his "midnight appointments" that were the basis of the Marbury v. Madison case
  143. Andrew Jackson
    (1761-1845) The seventh President of the US, Jackson championed the U.S. as a democracy, pushing for more political involvement by the common man. he also vetoed teh U.S. Bank's charter and made other reforms to keep the federal governmetn small.
  144. Jefferson, was devoted to the idea of a society composed of free, self-reliant individuals with a small government to protect thier rights
    "yeoman farmers" self-governing farmers would till the soil by day and read science and political phislosophy by candlelight in teh evening
  145. Hamilton viewed the common people of Jefferson's vision with distrust and disdain.
    there must always be the rulers and the ruled. he intended to be the one who ruled. he envisioned the main task beofre the new governmnet as being the creation of a great empire that would dominate the western hemishphere and compete successfully with the established powers of Europe
  146. Jefferson's Ideology: Democratic-Republican Party
    • Leaders: Jefferson and Madison
    • Ideal Society: Self-reliant individuals with small government that protects rights
    • Supported French Revolution and alliances with France
    • Smaller federal government
    • Narrow interpretation of constitutional powers
  147. Hamilton's Ideology: Federalist Party
    • Leaders: Hamilton and John Adams
    • Ideal Society: Great empire that would dominate the Western Hemisphere and compete with European powers
    • Supported alliances with Great Britain
    • Powerful federal government
    • Broad interpretation of constitutional powers
  148. Federalist party
    Political party founded by Hamilton and John Adams that envisioned a great Western empire with a strong federal government and a broad interpretaition of constituitonal powers
  149. Democratic-Republican Party
    Political party led by Jefferson and Madison that championed a society of self-reliant individuals to protect rights, a smaller federal govenrment, and a narrow and strict interpretation fo teh Constitution.
  150. Original consent
    giving consent to a provision or aw the first time, such as the ratification of the Constitution
  151. Periodic consent
    giving continuing consent at certain intervals (through means such as elections) to a provision or law to which original consent has already been given
  152. filtered consent
    when the selection fo government officials is distanced from direct election by the people in order to protect against mob rule and public whim. Filters include indirect election, time between elections, and size of representative regions
  153. Consent becomes more filtered if:
    • Elections are further apart in time
    • each rpresentative represents a larger population
    • the selection process is more indirect (i.e. the voters pick representatives who select the government officials.)
  154. House of Representatives
    the part of governmetn closest to the people. direct election every 2 years by the people
  155. The Senate
    2 senators from each state, senators are more removed from the people. Indirect election every 6 years through State Legislatures who are elected by the people
  156. The President
    indirect election every 4 years and only two terms through the Electoral College who are elected by the people
  157. Electoral College
    the group of electors selected by the peopel who are responsible for the selection of the president
  158. The Supreme court
    most removed from the people is the Supreme Court and the federal judiciary. are nominated by the President and confirmed by teh Senate. they serve as judges for life or until they choose to retire.
  159. House of Representative has the power to do what to the President or any federal judge?
    Impeachment
  160. Supreem Court
    • representaiton: U.S.
    • Method of selection: Nominated by President with consent of the Senate
    • Term of Office: Lifetime or voluntary retirement
  161. President
    • Representation: U.S
    • Method of selection: Majority of the electorla vote. if no candidate has a majority, the winner is determeined by state votes in teh House of Representatives
    • Term of Office: Four years with maximum of two terms
  162. Senate
    • Representation: State
    • Method of Selection: Originally selected by state legislatures Now plurality winner in the state
    • Term of Office: Six years
  163. House of Representatives
    • Representation: Districts proportional to population
    • Method of Selection: Plurality winner in the district
    • Term of Office: Two years
  164. the legal structures have four main characteristics:
    • the president is elected separately from teh legislature
    • a single representatvie is elected from each district or state
    • Plurality of votes being sufficient for election except in the Electoral College
    • Fixed intervals for elections
  165. Single Representative districts
    Representational sturcture where each geographical regioan elects its one representative independent of outcomes in other regions
  166. Proportional representation
    Party representation in the legislative body is closely tied to the national or reginal vote of that party
  167. Middle of the Road Politics: More or less Government
    • Candidates will try to position themselves in teh middle of voter sentiment and portray thieiir opponenet as extreme in some way.
    • More Government: Radical
    • Less Government: Reactionary
  168. Superficial Campaigning
    • based on looks instead of political agenda. the Candidates can't pin there opponent with an extreme title so they start pointing out different things. (Emperors new Groove- Kronks shoulder angel and devil = they are both trying to tell him what to do but can't get their point across,
    • DEVIL: listen up big guy i got a view good reasons you should just walk away.. reason number 1..look at that guy!*points at angel* he's got that sissy-stringy-music thing..
    • ANGEL:*sigh* we've been through this.. its a HARP..and you know it..
    • DEVIL: ..riiiight..THATS a "harp" and thats a DRESS
    • ANGEL: ..ROBE!
    • DEVIL: ..reason number 2..look what i can do *does1handed hand-stand* haha..HA!
    • KRONK: ..but ..what dose that have to do with anything..?..
    • ANGEL: ..no no..hes got a point)
  169. deep change
    Fundamental alteration in the way life is lived
  170. monopoly
    When one person or group caputres enough market power to control or manipulate prices; the lack of cometition in a market
  171. League of nations
    One of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points at teh end of WWI; it called for the creation of a group of nations to help ensure peace. the US never joined because of a veto by Congress. After WWII, the United Nations was formed with similar goals
  172. federalism
    The dividing of powers between the national and state governments
  173. judicial activism
    When the Supreme court uses judicial review in order to achieve social goals
  174. New Deal
    Plan by Fanklin D. Roosevelt involving the creation of various government agencies and programs designed to stimulate the economy and hlep the US escape th eGreat Depression
  175. big stick
    Part of the Theodore Roosevelt phrase: "Speak softly and carry a big stick," which represented the military might of the United States
  176. Charles Darwin
    (1809-1882) English naturalist known for writing the Orgin of Species, in which he propsed the idea of natural selection as the primary means of species diversity.
  177. Albert einstein
    (1879-1955) German-born theoretical physicist who is most known for his Special and General Theories of Relativity and teh formula for mass-energy equivalence, E=mc2
  178. Franklin D. Roosevelt
    (1882-1945) the 32nd President of the US, roosevelt served four terms, the only US President to serve more than two terms. His exuberant public personality helped bolster the nation's confidence as it struggled through the Depression and then entered World War II
  179. Karl Marx
    (1818-1883) German philosopher who wrote the communist Manifesto, championing communism and socialism and attacking market economies
  180. Theodore Roosevelt
    (1858-1919) the 26 President of the US, Roosevelt was known for his boisterous personality. he was known for trust-busitng, championing environmental causes, and his "big stick" foreign policy that called for American policing of thre Western Hemisphere to protect its economic interests.
  181. John Marshall
    (1755-1835) Fourth Chief Justice of the US, Marshall ruled that writs of mandamus were unconstituitional in the case Marbury v. Madison, thereby establishing a precedent for judicial review.
  182. Sigmund Freud
    (1856-1939) Considered the father of psychoanalytical psychology, Freud's theories were based ont eh idea that people were influenced in tehir behavior by subconscious and external factors beyond their control.
  183. Woodrow Wilson
    (1856-1924) 28th President of the US, Wilson helped frame the Treaty of Versailles ending WWI and proposed Fourteen Points that included the formation of the League of Nations
  184. Ordinance of 1784
    Plan of Thomas Jefferson to organize the national domain into discrete territories along with a three-stage development of government institutions
  185. Land Ordinance of 1785
    Called for the systematic survey of the Northsest Territory and divsion into mile-square plots and organization into townships
  186. Norhtwest Territory
    Lands north of the Ohio River
  187. Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    Caled for the Governemtnal development of the west based on creating self-governing republics that would be systematically added to teh Union
  188. Louisiana Purchase
    Land purchased by Thomas Jefferson from France. Consists of much of teh midwest US
  189. Napoleon Bonaparte
    (1769-1821) French Emperor and European conqueror who sold France's North American holdings to the US as the Louisiana Purchase
  190. Andrew Jackson
    (1767-1845) The 7th president of the US, Jackson championed the US as a democracy, pusing for more political involvement by the common man. He also vetoed the US bank's charter and made other reforms to keep the federal government small
  191. Public togetherness
    Aspect of party politics in which groups of political party members would gather together in order to have more solidarity adn support
  192. Party Newspaper
    Aj journal used by a political party for disseminating party information to and encouraging more active participation among the grass roots voters
  193. Popular campaigning
    Promoting candidates as being from (and therefore representing) the common masses,, rather than as elite gentlemen-politicians.
  194. Political convention
    large meeting of party delegates for the purpose of nominating candidates, often held with much pomp and ballyhoo
  195. Get out the vote activity
    aspect of party politics in which voters are systematically rounded up and helped to get to the polling place
  196. Political machine
    group of party loyalists organized to deliver the vote on election day. Historically they often sed quesitonable or illegal means such as buying votes orintimidation at the polls
  197. Confederacy
    Alliance of southern states that seceded from teh Union over slavery
  198. Emancipation Proclamation
    Presidential order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863 that freed slaves in the areas of insurrection
  199. federalism
    the dividing of powers between teh national and state governments
  200. secession
    Formal withdrawl of states or regions from a nation
  201. Factionalism/ sectionalism
    When a city-state or nation has multiple factions that compete against each other. Madison felt that an extedned republic would prevent facitonalism from leading to tyranny because no faction could be large enough to dominate./Factionalism on a larger, more regional scale, with fewer ut larger factions. Sectionalism during the 1800s over the slavery issue nullified teh benefits of Madison's extended repbulic and led to the Civil War
  202. state sovereignty
    When ultimate political power resides in the state rather than the federal government
  203. Missouri Compromise
    1820 agreement between slavery and anti-slavery factions in the US that regulated slavery in western territories, prohibiting slavery above the border of ARkansas (except Missouri) and permitting it south of that border.
  204. Thirteenth Amendment
    Abolished slavery in teh United States
  205. Fourteenth Amendment
    Defined citizenship and overturned the three-fifths compromise for slaves when determining representation, repudiated Confederate debts, and prohibited confederate leaders from holding public office
  206. Fifteenth Amendment
    All male citizens are granted the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
  207. Robert E. Lee
    (1807-1870) Confederate general and commander of the Army of Northern Virginia during the Civl War. After surrendering at Appomattox on April 9, 1865, Lee urged reconciliation with the North
  208. George B. McClellan
    (1826-1885) Union General during the Civil War. Although he helped raise and train the Union Army as general-in-chief, McClellan failed to press his advantage at the Battle of Antietam, and was later relieved of his command by President Lincoln
  209. Abraham Lincoln
    (1809-1865) 16 president of the US, Lincoln sought to end slavery and preserve the Union. He signed the Emancipation Proclamation and deliverd his famous "Gettysburg Address."
  210. Stephen A. Douglas
    (1813-1861) An Illinois statesman who ran aginst Lincoln, Bell, and Breckinridge in teh 1860 Presidential election on a popular sovereignty platform for slavery, Douglas also authored the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and heightened the slavery debate
  211. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
    (1777-1864) Fifth Chief Justice o fthe Supreme Court, Taney ruled in dred scott v. sandford that the Missouri Compromise was unconstituitonal.
  212. Dred Scott
    (1795-1858) Slave who sued unsuccessfully for his freedom in 1857 because he had lived with his owner in several states where slavery was illegal. the ruling of Dred Scott v. Sandford determined that slaves were property and cold not be freed by state laws. the ruling essentially nullified teh Missouri Compromise and was a major factor contributing to the Civil War.
  213. John Breckinridge
    (1821-1875) a Senator from Kentucky and the fourteenth vice president of the US, Breckinridge ran aginast Lincoln, Bell, and Douglas in the 1860 Presidential election on an extreme pro-slavery platform
  214. John Bell
    (1797-1869) A wealthy slaveowner from Tennessee who served in both the House an dthe Senate, Bell ran for US President aginst Lincoln, Breckinridge , and Douglas in 1860 with the Constitutional Union Party on a moderate proslavery platform
  215. September 17, 1862 was teh bloodiest day in American history...
    Civil War
  216. Antietam
    a severe Civil War battle that took place on September 17, 1862. It was teh bloodiest day in American history. After the battle Abraham Lincoln issured the Emancipation Proclamation
  217. Emanicipation Proclamation
    Prsidential order issued by Abraham Lincoln on Jan 1, 1863 that freed slaves in the areas of insurrection
  218. slaves proved to be especially productive in growing what four crops?
    tobacco, rice, cotton, and sugar
  219. Secession
    Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation

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