Sierra Nevada

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Author:
michellefool
ID:
1144
Filename:
Sierra Nevada
Updated:
2009-11-19 13:49:04
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Description:
BIO EXAM
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  1. General formation of the current Sierra Nevada
    • -Tilted fault block of granite, 400 miles long.
    • -Covered by glaciers
  2. ecotone
    • Transition zones.
    • Where communities meet and species overlap.
  3. The four principal climatic zones
    • 1)Lower Montane (Yellow Pine Forest)
    • 2)Upper Montane (Red Fir/ Lodgepole Pine Forest)
    • 3)Subalpine
    • 4)Alpine
  4. Role of Elevation
    • ~ every 1000 ft increase in elevation is = to moving 300 miles north
    • Increase in elevation=decrease in temp. (3-5°F/1000 ft)
    • Shallower soils
    • Higher wind and drier air
    • Less CO2&O
















  5. Climatic Factors
    • -Rainshadow Effect, from west to eat
    • -Precipitation, from north to south
  6. Yellow Pine (Lower Montane Forest)
    • Highest amount of rainfall
    • Contains:
    • Incense Cedar, Giant Sequoia, White Fir, Sugar Pine, Douglas Fir, and Ponderosa Pine
    • Fire important to keep openness (8-15yrs)
  7. Upper Montane (Red Fir / Lodgepole Pine Forest)
    • has the highest snowfall in CA
    • Snow adapted not fire adapted
    • Growing season approx. 4 months
    • Contains: Red fir, Wolf lichen













  8. Subalpine Woodland
    99% of precipitation is snow



    Created by glaciers


    Drought conditions





    High winds





    • Very little soil
    • Vegetation: Bristle Cone Pine, Foxtail pine



















  • Alpine
    • Little precipitation
    • Intense light, lots of UV rays


    Growing season 40-70 days





    • Temperature is very cold, -40°F
    • No trees



    • Animals: Bighorn sheep, Yellow-bellied marmot
  • Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa)

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    • Most abundant conifer in N.Am.
    • Lives 300-500 years






    Fire adapted







    Seeds need fire to germinate
  • White Fir (Abies concolor)









    • Can reach up to 240 ft and 74 inches in diameter
    • Not fire adapted with resinous foliage that burns easily
    • Shade tolerant

    Have upright cones
  • Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)





    Second tallest conifer, 329 ft and 15 ft diameter

    Not true firs



    Unique cones







  • How fire alters the Lower Montane & why they're necessary
    • Giant sequoia and ponderosa pine seeds need it to germinate.
    • Fire removes litter and provides nutrients to the poor soil



    Fire also causes some species (Giant sequoia)



    cones to shed their seed









  • Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana)



    Can reach heights of 250 feet with a diameter of 18+ ft


    BIG cones average 18 inches long





    Needles in 5’s















  • Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)

    • Live 3,200 – 4,000 years
    • Bark to 24” thick
    • 225 ft plus in height
    • Adult trees are fire adapted
    • Seeds need fire to germinate
    • Cones need fire to shed seeds
    • Have an extensive, "pancake" root system



















  • FIRE Cycle in the Lower Montane
    • Every 8-15 years
    • Allows sequoia and ponderosa seeds to germinate
    • It removes litter and provides nutrients to the soil
  • FIRE SUPRESSION
    • USFS began controlling fires in 1905. CDF in 1924
    • With excess fuel, most of the fires we see today are crown fires
    • Has altered the dominant tree species and structure has shifted from open to clumped












  • PRESCRIBED/CONTROLLED BURNING
    • Management tool to bring back a normal fire cycle
    • Cut and pile smaller trees to burn in heaps
    • Then set a ground fire


    • USFS, NPS, State Dept. of Forestry and
    • California Dept. of Parks and Recreation use this method

    • •Success in germination and survival in
    • sequoia groves




  • Black Bear
    • Only species of bear remaining in the state of California.
    • Adult males can be 250 to 600 lbs and extend 6 feet tall.
    • Lifespan: 25yrs+
    • During Hibernation: Winter
    • They don't wake up, urinate, or deficate (body recycles nitrogen waste)
    • Cubs are born during hibernation








  • How are mountain meadows formed?
  • Difference between the formation of a “U”-shaped vs. “V”-shaped valley
  • Adaptations that flowering plants have in the alpine zone?






    Why is
    plant growth limited in the sub-alpine and alpine zones? Describe Krummholz.






    Why is
    plant growth limited in the sub-alpine and alpine zones? Describe Krummholz.








    Why is
    plant growth limited in the sub-alpine and alpine zones? Describe Krummholz.









    Why is
    plant growth limited in the sub-alpine and alpine zones? Describe Krummholz.







    Why is
    plant growth limited in the sub-alpine and alpine zones? Describe Krummholz.
  • Alpine Animals
    • Yellow-bellied Marmot

    • Bighorn Sheep
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