Card Set Information

2011-11-04 02:34:34
Chapter clouds

Chapter 5 clouds
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  1. Describe the atmospheric water cycle.
    "Water enters the atmosphere as a gas by evaporation from wet surface and plants. When the air cools
  2. Where is water vapor concentrated in the atmosphere?
    "About a mile or 2 above the surface. In Hawaii
  3. How is heat transferred to the atmosphere by water vapor?
    "As water evaporates
  4. What is precipitation?
    "Precipitation is when cloud grow deep enough
  5. Compare evaporation from land and ocean.
    "Most atmospheric water enters the air from the ocean. If it is over land
  6. Describe the pattern of evaporation from oceans.
  7. "How do sun
  8. How can evaporation be measured?
    It can be measured with a evaporation pan.
  9. What is the relative humidty formula?
    RH = VP / SVP *100 (Relative Humidity = Vapor Pressure / Saturation Vapor Pressure * 100)
  10. What is humidity and how does it vary in the atmosphere?
    Humidity is the measure of the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. It varies from place to place with altitude and over time.
  11. What are meant by vapor pressure and saturation vapor pressure?
    Vapor pressure is the measure of water in the atmosphere. Saturation water pressure is the maximum amount of water vapor taht the air can hold.
  12. What is the relationship between SVP and air temperature?
    "The warmer the air
  13. Define relative humidity and calculate the missing RH values in the table of examples.
    Relative humidity is the reported measure of water in the atmosphere.
  14. Why don't clouds fall from the sky?
    "Rising air supports teh cloud and causes its formation. As the air rise
  15. What is meant by atmospheric stability?
    "It is the tendency of air to rise or not. It also helps determine whether clouds will be deep and produce rain
  16. Why does air cool when rising?
    It expands and releases heat energy.
  17. Distinguish between stable and unstable conditions and describe sky conditions associated with each.
  18. What are the DALR and the ELR?
    The Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR) refers to the rate at which a rising parcel of air cools (typically 10 �C per kilometer). Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR) refers to the actual temperature profile in the atmosphere.
  19. What conditions cause high and low ELRs?
    Increased ELR is caused by both warming the surface and cooling the upper atmosphere. Cooling the surface and heating the upper atmosphere will promote stable conditions.
  20. What is meant by conditionally unstable air? How does it become unstable?
    The air can become unstable on the condition that it is forced to rise and cool to the dew point. Typically the atmosphere is neither stable or unstable.
  21. What causes the flat cloud deck over the Hawaiian Islands?
    Air parcels simply cannot rise though this warm air layer.
  22. What are some common examples of condensation?
    surface of cold cans taken from a refrigerator or icebox.
  23. "What are CCNs(cloud condensation nuclei
    )? "
  24. "Compare the sizes of CCNs(cloud condensation nuclei
  25. Explain how the eruption of Kilauea volcano may cause reduced rainfall in Kona.
    "The volcano puts out huge quantities of CCNs(cloud condensation nuclei)
  26. How do raindrops form?
    "Raindrops form by collision and coalescence of cloud droplets
  27. How is cloud drop size related to raindrop formation?
    "In general
  28. How do snowflakes form?
    "Ice crystals need surfaces to freeze onto (called ice forming nuclei)
  29. How does artificial cloud seeding work?
    "Ice forming nuclei (generally silver iodide) are spread into cold clouds as particle surfaces to initiate freezing. Although ice crystals form initially
  30. How does hail form?
    "In the upper part of the storm
  31. What are the five basic cloud classification words and what do they mean?
    "cirrus (referring to high-altitude
  32. Describe ten basic cloud types shown in the diagram.
  33. Describe how the four types of fog form and give examples.
    "Radiant Cooling - In cool climates