Cancer

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Author:
Michelle25
ID:
114459
Filename:
Cancer
Updated:
2011-11-15 17:59:33
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cancer
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cancer
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  1. Cells that convert from one type of cell to another:
    Metaplasia
  2. Cells that lack normal cellular characteristics and differ in shape and organization with respect to their cells of origin (ultimately determines the malignant potential)
    Anaplasia
  3. Bizarre cell growth resulting in cells that differ in size, shape, or arrangement from other cells of the same type of tissue
    Dysplasia
  4. What are secondary prevention strategies for cancer?
    Detection and screenings- mammography, pap test, breast and testicular self exam, skin inspection
  5. A _____ is a drug that will cause extensive soft tissue damage if it leaks into the tissue
    vesicant
  6. Inflammatory response of the oral tissues that is characterized by mild redness (erythema) and edema, or, if severe- by painful ulcerations, bleeding, and secondary infection
    Stomatitis
  7. What medication is given to prevent formation of uric acid crystals?
    Allopurinal
  8. Which chemo drug is often associated with peripheral neuropathies?
    Vincristine
  9. What is the leading cause of death in oncology patients?
    INFECTION
  10. How do we assess thrombocytopenia?
    DECREASED PLATELET COUNT
  11. What is the patient at risk for who has thrombocytopenia?
    Trauma, bleeding
  12. The continued uncontrolled release of ADH antidiuretic hormone produced by tumor cells leads to increased water toxicity- _________.
    hyponatremia (Na levels < 120 Meq/L)
  13. Which term refers to cells that lack normal cellular characteristics and differ in shape and organization with respect to their cells of origin?
    Anaplasia
  14. According to the TNM classification system, T0 means there is:
    no evidence of primary tumor
  15. According to the TNM classification system, M0 means there is:
    no distant metastasis
  16. According to the TNM classification system, M1 means tehre is:
    Distant metastasis
  17. What does TNM stand for?
    • T= primary tumor
    • N= lymph node involvement
    • M= metastasis
  18. During which stage of cellular carciogenesis do cellular changes exhibit increased malignant behavior?
    • Progression
    • The third stage of carciogenesis in which cells show a propensity to invade adjacent tissues and metastasize.
  19. ____ is a decrease in neutrophils
    Granulocytopenia
  20. ______ is a decrease in the number of platelets
    Thrombocytopenia
  21. A benign tumor of the blood vessels is a:
    hemangioma
  22. Chemotherapeutic agents have which effect associated with the renal system?
    increased uric acid secretion
  23. Following a BMT, the patient should be monitored for at least:
    3 months
  24. What is the treatment for acute DIC?
    Recieve a blood transfusion
  25. Which DIC category is obsevable symptoms such as easy bruising and prolonged bleeding from venipuncture sites?
    Chronic DIC
  26. What is secondary prevention of cancer?
    detection and screenings (mammograms, pap test, BSE, TSE, skin inspection)
  27. Grading of a malignancy; undifferentiated, more aggressive and less responive to treatments would be a grade ___
    4
  28. Grading of malignancy; well differentiated, closely resemble tissue of origin would be a grade ___
    1
  29. _______: determines size of the tumor and presence of metatastasis
    Staging
  30. _______: increase in cell size
    hypertrophy
  31. ______: increase in number of cells
    hyperplasia
  32. _____: does not follow any kind of physiologic demand
    Neoplasia
  33. _____: bizzare cell growth pattern
    dysplasia
  34. _____: does not have normal cell characteristics
    Anaplasia
  35. ______: cells convert to another type of cell
    metaplasia
  36. During the ____ phase of the cell cycle, the cell doubles its DNA
    S
  37. During the ___ phase of the cell cycle, the cell divides into two cells
    M
  38. _______ cells: rate of growth is not normal but still follow normal cell growth patterns
    Benign
  39. ______: process of transforming normal cells into malignant cells
    Carcinogenesis
  40. ______: where the cells normal structure is altered by either external or internal agents
    Initiation
  41. _______: (where the cells become mutated) repeated exposure to promoting agents (carcinogens) causes the expression of abnormal or mutant genetics information
    Promotion
  42. ______: where the cells become malignant (the altered cells exhibit increased malignant behavior)
    Progression
  43. ______ spread: dissemination of malignant cells via the bloodstream and is directly related to the vascularity of the tumor
    hematogenous
  44. _______: the growth of new capillaries from the host tissue by the release of growth factors and enzymes such as VEGF
    Angiogenesis
  45. Radiation may cause radiodermatitis.... what do you need to monitor for?
    • Monitor for moist desquamation
    • - Weeping of the skin due to loss of upper layer of the skin
    • - Apply antibiotic ointment or steroid cream as prescribed
    • - Expose site to air
  46. How should the patient be postioned when receiving radiation?
    less than 45 degrees and must be log roleed to prevent implant from dislodging
  47. ______ surgery is performed to relieve complications of cancer
    Palliative
  48. The nurse is monitoring a client for signs and symptoms related to superior vena cava syndrome. What is an early sign of this oncological emergency?
    Periorbital edema

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