Anatomy quiz 6

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elz125
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114466
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Anatomy quiz 6
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2011-11-06 20:24:11
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anatomy
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Anatomy of speech and hearing
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  1. Source-filter theory
    change size and shape of cavities by manipulating articulators
  2. Resonant frequency
    frequency to which a cavity most readily responds
  3. How does size affect frequency?
    • bigger volume of air- lower frequency
    • smaller volume of air- higher frequency
  4. Vowels
    voicing (vocal fold vibration) is source (he, who)
  5. Consonants
    turbulence is source (see, she)
  6. Source
    vibration of vocal folds generates sound waves
  7. Filter
    the "tubes" of the vocal tract (pharynx, nasal cavity, oral cavity)
  8. Which articulators are mobile?
    • tongue
    • mandible
    • hyoid bone
    • larynx
    • lips
    • velum
    • fauces and pharynx
    • cheeks
  9. Which articulators are immobile?
    • hard palate
    • alveolar ridge
    • teeth
  10. What four cavities are involved in articulation and resonation?
    • oral
    • buccal
    • nasal
    • pharyngeal
  11. Oral cavity
    • undergoes most change during speech
    • mouth- anterior
    • faucial pillars- posterior
    • hard palate, soft palate, uvula
  12. Buccal cavity
    space between teeth and cheeks
  13. Nasal cavity
    • nostrils to nasal choanae (apertures)
    • floor is hard palate
    • other posterior landmarks (pharyngeal tonsils, orifice of Eustachian tube)
  14. Pharyngeal cavity
    • nasopharynx (above soft palate, nasal coanae to occipital bone)
    • oropharynx (velum to hyoid)
    • laryngopharynx (hyoid to esophagus)
  15. What are the bones of the face and skull?
    • mandible
    • maxillae
    • nasal bone
    • palatine bone and nasal conchae (turbinates)
    • vomer
    • zygomatic bone
    • lacrimal bone
    • hyoid bone
  16. Mandible
    • lower jaw
    • unpaired
  17. Maxillae
    • paired (maxilla)
    • forms most of hard palate
  18. Nasal bones
    • paired
    • small
    • form top of nose
  19. Palatine bones
    • paired
    • from front, see "upside-down heart" shape of nasal cavity
    • horizontal plates form posterior 1/4 of hard palate
  20. Nasal conchae
    • also called turbinates
    • small, scroll-shaped (like turbines)
  21. Vomer
    • forms inferior and posterior part of nasal septum
    • shaped like a plowshare with its point forward
  22. Zygomatic bones
    • paired
    • cheekbones
    • landmarks: maxillary process, temporal process, frontal process
  23. Lacrimal bones
    • paired
    • small
    • anterior portion of medial wall of eye socket
  24. What are teh 6 cranial bones?
    • ethmoid
    • sphenoid
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occiptal
    • temporal
  25. Ethmoid
    • "core" of skull
    • unpaired
    • mid-sagittal
    • helps connect cranial and facial skeletons
    • landmarks: perpendicular plate, orbital plates, middle and superior nasal conchae
  26. Sphenoid
    • unpaired
    • "bat-wing" shape
    • landmarks (pairs of processes): greater wings, lesser wings, medial and lateral pterygoid plates
  27. Temporal
    • ear is located here
    • landmarks: external auditory meatus (within tympanic portion), zygomatic process, madibular fossa (glenoid), mastoid process, styloid process
  28. Name and number of each type of tooth
    • incisors- 8
    • cuspids- 4
    • bicuspids- 8
    • molars- 12
  29. Medial
    closest to midline
  30. Distal
    furthest from midline
  31. Buccal
    next to cheek
  32. Lingual
    next to tongue
  33. Occlusal
    contact surface between upper and lower arches
  34. What is the order of dental development?
    • deciduous (or shedding or milk) teeth
    • replaced by permanent (successional) teeth
    • eruption through the bone and the gum begins 6-9 months of age:
    • central incisors emerge first (lower, then upper), followed later incisors (upper, then lower)
    • cuspids, 1st molars emerge at the same time (15-20 months)
    • 2nd molars will have erupted by 2 years
    • 3rd molars in adulthood
  35. What age(s) does the shedding of the deciduous teeth occur?
    • incisors (6-9 years)
    • cuspids and 1st molars (9-12 years)
    • 2nd molars (around 10 years)
  36. Occlusion
    process of bringing upper and lower teeth together
  37. Class I malocclusion
    1st mandibular molar is one-half tooth advanced of maxillary molar
  38. Class II malocclusion
    protusion of upper arch
  39. Class III malocclusion
    protusion of lower arch
  40. Risorius
    • facial muscle
    • retracts corners of mouth aiding smiling and grinning
  41. Buccinator
    • facial muscle
    • retracts lips corners (pulls back the angle of the mouth which aids smiling)
    • tightens cheeks (important for mastication)- aids in holding the cheek to the teeth during chewing
    • helps with embouchure (the mouthpiece of a wind instrument) for wind instruments
    • also aids whistling
  42. Levator labii superioris
    • facial muscle
    • elevates upper lip
  43. Zygomatic minor
    • facial muscle
    • elevates upper lip
  44. Levator labii alaque nasi superioris
    • facial muscle
    • elevates upper lip
  45. Zygomatic major
    • facial muscle
    • elevates and retracts angle of mouth
  46. Depressor labii inferioris
    • facial muscle
    • pulls lower lip down and out to bare lower teeth
  47. Levator anguli oris
    • facial muscle
    • pulls corners of mouth up and medially
  48. Depressor anguli oris
    • facial muscle
    • depresses lip corners, compresses upper lip against lower lip (frown)
  49. Mentalis
    • facial muscle
    • protrudes lower lip
    • eleates and wrinkles chin and pulls lower lip out, as in pouting
  50. Orbiuclaris oris
    • facial muscle
    • acts as a "drawstring" to pull the lips closer together and effect a labial seal
    • controls most movements of the lips such as lip compression, closure, or protusion, elevation, retraction, depression
  51. Platysma
    • facial muscle
    • depresses mandible
  52. Genioglossus
    • tongue muscle
    • extrinsic
    • can retract, protrude, depress tongue
  53. Vertical
    • tongue muscle
    • intrinsic
    • pulls tongue down into the floor of the mouth
  54. Chondroglossus
    • tongue muscle
    • extrinsic
  55. Transverse
    • tongue muscle
    • intrinsic
    • narrow tongue (pulls the edges of tongue toward the midline)
  56. Hyoglossus
    • tongue muscle
    • extrinsic
    • pulls sides of tongue down
  57. Superior longitudinal
    • tongue muscle
    • intrinsic
    • helps to elevate tip of tongue
  58. Inferior longitudinal
    • tongue muscle
    • intrinsic
    • pulls tip of the tongue downward (also, assists in the retraction of the tongue if co-contracted with the superior longitudinal)
  59. Styloglossus
    • tongue muscle
    • extrinsic
    • pulls tongue back and up
  60. Masseter
    • mandibular muscle
    • runs from zygomati arch to ramus of mandible
    • innervation: V trigeminal
    • elevates mandible
  61. Temporalis
    • mandibular muscle
    • originates in broad area of temporal and parietal bones
    • coverges to insert on coronoid process and ramus of mandible
    • innervation: V trigeminal
    • elevates and retracts
  62. Medial pterygoid
    • mandibular muscle
    • originates medial pterygoid plate of spenoid
    • inserts on ramus of mandible
    • innervation: V trigeminal
    • elevates mandible
  63. Lateral pterygoid
    • mandibular muscle
    • originates later pterygoid plate and greater wing of sphenoid
    • inserts on lower part of condylar process
    • innervation: V trigeminal
    • protrudes mandible
  64. Digastricus
    • mandibular muscle
    • anterior originates on inner surface of mandible, posterior originates on mastoid process of temporal bone; both insert on hyoid
    • innervation: V trigeminal; VII facial
    • depresses mandible
  65. Mylohyoid
    • mandibular muscle
    • mandible to hyoid
    • innervation: V trigeminal
    • depress mandible
  66. Geniohyoid
    • mandibular muscle
    • mandible to hyoid
    • innervation: XII hypoglossal
    • depress mandible
  67. Which mandibular muscles are elevators?
    • masseter
    • temporalis
    • medial pterygoid
  68. Tensor veli palatine
    • velar muscle
    • main role is to dilate Eustachian tube (dilates or opens the Eustachian tube, thereby permitting exchange of air of the middle ear cavity
  69. Levator palatine
    • velar muscle
    • primary elevator of soft palate (elevates and retracts the posterior velum and makes up the bulk of the velum)
  70. Palatoglossus
    • velar muscle
    • actively depresses soft palate (relaxed state is depression, but can be depressed further)
    • dual purpose: elevates tongue or depresses velum
    • forms anterior faucial pillar (posterior of oral cavity)
  71. Palatopharygeus
    • velar muscle
    • assisting in narrowing pharyngeal cavity and lowers velum
    • forms posterior faucial pillar
  72. Superior pharyngeal constrictors
    • pharyngeal muscle
    • wrap around pharynx
    • originates at same point as buccinator
    • courses back and around to insert at the midline of the posterior pharyngeal wall
    • forms the sides and back wall of the nasopharynx
    • and part of the back wall of oropharynx
  73. Middle pharyngeal constrictor
    • pharyngeal muscle
    • originates on hyoid cornu and sylohyoid ligament
    • narrows the diameter of the pharynx
  74. Inferior pharyngeal constrictor
    • pharyngeal muscle
    • makes up the inferior pharynx, reduces the diameter of the lower pharynx
    • consists of cricopharyngeus and thyropharyngeus
  75. Cricopharyngeus
    • part of inferior pharyngeal constrictor
    • originates on cricoid cartilage
    • *all constrictors innercated by XI accessory and X vagus
  76. Thyropharyngeus
    • part of inferior pharyngeal constrictor
    • originates on thyroid laminae (oblique line)
  77. Salpingopharyngeus
    • pharyngeal muscle
    • runs from Eustachian tube to converge with palatopharyngeus muscle
    • assists to elevate pharyngeal wall
    • X vagus and XI spinal accessory
  78. Stylopharyngeus
    • pharyngeal muscle
    • originates on styloid process of temporal bone
    • inserts on constrictor muscles and thyroid cartilage
    • elevates and opens pharynx
    • IX glossopharyngeal
  79. What are the four main articulators?
    • lips
    • mandible
    • tongue
    • velum
  80. Mandible
    movement is important for speech (assists the lips; changes its position for tongue movement; and tightly closes when necessary by carrying the lips, tongue, and teeth to their targets in maxilla- lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, and hard palate)
  81. Elevate tip
    • tonuge movement
    • /t/, /d/
    • superior longitudinal muscles
  82. Relax lateral margins
    • tongue movement
    • /l/
    • genioglossus + sup. longitudinal + transverse
  83. Retract
    • tongue movement
    • /o/
    • genioglossus + sup. and inf. longitudinal (+styloglossus for swallowing)
  84. Protrusion
    • tongue movement
    • "th"
    • genioglossus + vertical + sup. and inf. longitudinal
  85. Elevate posterior
    • tongue movement
    • /g/, /k/
    • palatoglossus + transverse
  86. Depress body
    • tongue movement
    • /ash/
    • genioglossus (+hyoglossus and condroglossus)
  87. Development of articulatory ability
    • the motor system is governed by reflexes in early development
    • we then gain cortical control over motor patterns
    • motor development involves the refining of gross
    • movements
    • gross movements are developed before fine movements
  88. Associated chain theory
    • learn a series of movements for each sound
    • each motion is associated with the one before and the one after
  89. 2 problems with associated chain theory
    • we can still speak intelligibly when articulators are perturbed (biting pencil, wad of cotton in cheek)
    • coarticulation (the motor movements for a sound are affected by other sounds; "boot", "bite")
  90. Central control theory (master control mechanism)
    • has an answer for perturbation
    • central controller issues command for a sound
    • "program" is executed at a lower level
    • sensory feedback sensors within the articulators are used to adjust and modify articulation
    • need separate programs for /b/ in boot, bite
  91. Dynamic (action theory) models
    • there is an articulatory goal, or target sound (similar to central control)
    • there are many ways to reach the goal
    • adapt to current state of articulators
    • the physical properties of the articulatory system (and central control) determine the execution
    • accounts for coarticulation
  92. Apraxia
    problems with programming voluntary control of movement in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis
  93. Limb apraxia
    difficulty with volitional gestures, actions on objects
  94. Oral apraxia
    difficulty with non-speech oral gestures
  95. Verbal apraxia
    difficulty with speech sound production

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