Child Psych E202 Test 3 vocab
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What is the Amygdala?
Structure located in the inner brain that processes emotional info
What is the cerebellum?
Structure located in the rear and the base of the brain that aids in balance & ctrl of body mvmt
The corpus collosum is a what?
Lg bundle of fibers connecting cerebral hemispheres
The dominant cerebral hemisphere is what?
Describes a greater capacity of 1 side of the brain to carry out skilled motor action
Describe growth hormone.
1st pituitary hormone fr birth, on for development for most all body tissues. Secreted by the pituitary gland, released when sleeping.
Describe the hippocampus.
Inner brain structure that is vital in memory & images of space that help us find our way
Describe the pituitary gland.
Structure located @ the base of the brain that releases GH & TSH to induce growth
What is psychological dwarfism?
Growth disorder between 2&15 y/o characterized by decreased GH secretion, very short stature, immature skeletal age, serious adjustment problems
Describe the reticular formation.
Structure located in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness
What is thyroid Stimulating hormone?
2nd pituitary hormone that causes thyroid gland to release thyroxine for brain development & for GH to have full effect
What is animistic thinking?
A belief that inanimate objects have life like qualities such as thoughts wishes & feelings
Cardinality says what?
The last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set
Centration is described as. . . .
Centering of focus - Focussing on 1 aspect of a situation & neglecting other important features
Child centered programs are described as what?
Teachers provide activities fr which the child selects resulting in learning taking place thru play
Conservation refers to what?
Idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even if the outward appearance changes
Egocentrism is described as a . . . .
Failure to distinguish symbolic view points of others fr one's own
Your episodic memory is . . . .
Your memory of everyday experiences
Guided participation is described as . . . . .
Shared endeavors between more expert & less expert experiences w/o specifying precise features of communication
Memory strategies are. . . .
Deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering
Mutual exclusivity Bias is what?
Assumption that words refer to entirely separate categories
Ordinality describes what?
Order relationships between quantities
Phonological Awareness is the ability to what?
Reflect on & manipulate sound structure of spoken language
Preoperational stage is what?
Piaget's 2nd stage -- 2-7y/o -- Most obvious change is increase in representational or symbolic activity
Describe Project Head Start.
Fed program started in '65 that provides children w/1-2 yrs of preschool & nutritional & health services. Parental involvement is key
Scaffolding is what?
Act of adjusting support offered during a teaching session to fit childs level of performance
A script is a what?
General description of what occurs & when in a particular situation
Semantic Bootstrapping is described as . . . .
Act of children using word meanings to figure out grammatical rules
Sociodramatic play is described as. . . .
Make believe w/others starting @ end of 2nd yr increasing in complexity throughout development
Androgyny is described as . . . .
Scoring high on BOTH masculine & feminine personality characteristics
Associative play is described as . . .
Act of children engaging in separate activities but exchange toys & comment on one another's behavior
An Authoritarian Child Rearing Style is . . . .
- A way of raising of a child that is:
- Low in acceptance & involvement
- High in coercive ctrl
- Low in autonomy granting
An Authoritative Child Rearing Style is . . .
- Most successful approach to raising a child:
- High acceptance & involvement
- Adaptive ctrl techniques
- Appropriate autonomy granting
A child rearing style is . . .
A combination of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations creating an enduring child rearing environment
What is cooperative play?
1/2 of Parten's 2nd step in social development - More advanced form of child interaction that is common goal oriented such as acting out a make believe theme
Gender Identity says that . . . .
As an adult each of us has an image of one's self as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
Nonsocial Activity is what?
Parten's 1st step in social development among 2-5 y/o -- Characterized by unoccupied, onlooker type behavior & solitary play
Parallel Play is described as what?
Parten's 2nd step in social development among 2-5y/o -- Characterized by limited social participation where child plays nr others w/similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
Describe a permissive child rearing style.
Warm & accepting but uninvolved -- Parents allow children to make many of their own decisions b/f they are capable rather than gradually granting autonomy
Describe physical aggression.
That which physically harms others
Describe proactive aggression.
1st form of aggressive act where children act to fulfill a need or desire & unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal
Prosocial/Altruistic Behavior is described as . . .
Actions that benefit another person w/o any reward for the self
Reactive aggression is described as what?
2nd form of aggressive act where children respond w/ anger & defense to provocation or a blocked goal & is meant to hurt another person
Describe relational aggression.
Type of aggression that damages another's peer relationships thru social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
Self concept is a . . .
Set of attributes, abilities, attitudes & values that an individual believes defines who he/she is
Self esteem is described as . . . .
Judgements we make about our own worth & feelings associated w/ those judgements
Social Conventions are what?
Customs determined solely by consensus such as table manners or politeness rituals
Social problem solving is the act of . . .
Generating & applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others & beneficial to self
Sympathy is described as . . .
Feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight
The punishment style of "time out" is described as . . .
Removing a child fr the immediate setting until they are ready to act appropriately
An uninvolved child rearing style is described as what?
Combines low acceptance & involvement w/little ctrl & general indifference to issues of autonomy
Verbal aggression is described as. . . .
Type of proactive/reactive aggression that harms others thru threats of physical aggression, name calling, or hostile teasing
Describe Erikson's Initiative Vs Guilt.
An inner conflict during preschool years when children are eager to try new tasks but overly strict superego or conscience causes too much guilt. Often caused by excessive threats, criticism or punishment fr adults
Private speech is described as . . . .
Once called self directed speech - Act of children speaking to themselves for self guidance
Overregulation is described as what?
An error made by children where they overextend the rules to words ie My toy car breaked
What is metacognition?
Act of children reflecting upon their own thought process; Constructing a coherent set of ideas about mental activities
Describe functional play.
- Simple repetitive mvmts w/or w/o objects
- 0-2 y/o
Describe constructive play.
- Play that creates or constructs something
- 3-6 y/o
Describe make-believe play.
- Acting out everyday or imaginitive roles
- 2-6 y/o
What is the initiative side of Erikson'e initiative vs guilt?
- Eagerness to try new tasks & join peers
- Play permits trying new skills
- Acting out highly visible occupations
Describe the guilt side of Erikson's initiative vs guilt.
- Overly strict superegoor conscience causes too much guilt
- Related to excessive threats, criticism & punishment fr adults
Define the I-Self.
- Self as knower/actor separate fr the outside world.
- Remains same person overtime w/private innerlife
- NOT accessible to others & can ctrl own thoughts & actions
Define the Me-Self.
Self as object of knowledge consisting of all physical, psychological and social characteristics that make self unique.
Describe direct parental influence on peer child development.
- Arranges formal peer activities
- Guidence on how to act toward others
Describe indirect parental influences on peer child development.
- Secure attachment
- Emotionally expressive
- Supportive communication
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