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  1. What are periradicular tissues?
    Tissues that sorruound the root of the tooth.
  2. This unique specialty manages the prevention, diagnosis, and treatmentof the dental pulp and periradicular tissues.
  3. What is Endodontic treatment often referred to as?
    root canal theraphy
  4. Removal of the dental pulp and filling of the canal with material also provides an effective means of saving a tooth that might otherwise have to be extracted.
    root canal theraphy
  5. What specialist performs root canal theraphy?
  6. What is the necessary continued training for a dentist to become an endodontist?
    minimum of 3 years in clinical skill and research of pulp theraphy
  7. What will result if bacteria reach the the nerves and blood vessels of a tooth?
    infection will result in abscess
  8. What is an abscess?
    localized area of pus
  9. What are the two main sources of of pulpal nerve damage?
    • physical irritation- cause bt extensive decay that has moved into the pulp carrying bacteria
    • trauma- such as blow to a tooth or the jaw, can cause trauma to sorrounding tissues.
  10. What are some symptoms of Pulpal damage?
    • sensitivity, discomfort, pain
    • Pain when occluding
    • Pain during mastication
    • Sensitivity to hot or cold beverages
    • Noticeable facial swelling
  11. What diagnosis is given when pulpal tissues are inflamed?
  12. Would pain be a subjective or objective component of a diagnosis?
    Subjective examination- symptoms and problems described by patient
  13. Tooth #21 is the questionable tooth for possible endodontic treatment. What tooth would be used as a control tooth?
    #12, same type in the opposite quadrant
  14. When a dentist taps on a tooth, what diagnostic test is being performed?
    percussion- tap on incisal or occlual surface with the end of a mouth mirror
  15. How many radiograph may be taken through the course of root canal therapy?
    • 5
    • Initial radiograph- during diagnostic stages before treatment
    • Working length image- once the pulp has been opened, determine lenght of canal
    • Final instrumentation image- with final size files in all canals receiving treatment.
    • Root canal completion image- Completed canal is filled
    • Recall image- posttreatment evaluations
  16. Give another term used for necrotic or necrosis.
  17. technique of examinig the soft tissue with the examiners hands or fingertips. (firm pressure to mucosaabove the apex of the root)
  18. Test using extreme temperature?
    • Thermal sensitivity:
    • cold test- using ice and control tooth
    • heat test- using heated gutta percha
  19. What is used to determine whether the pulp is vital or nonvital?
    Electric pulp testing
  20. Not living, as in oral tissue and tooth structure?
  21. "blank" is conducted by the endodontist, who evaluates the status of the tooth and surrounding tissues?(decay, tooth mobility, swelling, discoloration, pulp exposure)
    objective examination
  22. What indicates no subjective symptoms or objective signs?
    Normal pulp- responds normal to sensory stimuli
  23. "blank" occurs when the pulp is irritated and the patient is experiencing pain to thermal stimuli, eliminitating the irritant and placing sedative may save pulp.
    Reversible pulpitis
  24. "blank" dispays symptoms of lingering pain and is incapable of healing.
    Irreversible pulpitis = root canal therapy or extraction
  25. An inflammatory reaction to pulpal infection.
    periradicular abscess
  26. Plastic type of filling material used in endodontics.
  27. "blank" is characterized by the presence of a draining sinus tract. (asymptomatic)
    Chronic periradicular abscess
  28. "blank" is inflammatory response with pain, tenderness of the tooth to pressure, pus formation, and swelling of the tissues resulting from necrosis.
    Acute periradicular abscess
  29. "blank" is inflammatory reactions to bacteria trapped in the periodontal sulcus.
    Periodontal abscess
  30. "blank" a cyst that develops near the root of a necrotic tooth.
    Periradicular cyst
  31. "blank" is the decrease of livinf cells within the pulp, causing fibrous tissue to take over the pulpal canal.
    Pulp fibrosis
  32. What dental material would be selected for pulp capping?
    calcium hydroxide
  33. How much of the pulp is removed in a pulpotomy?
    Coronal portion of the exposed vital pulp (to preserve vitality of remaining portion of pulp)
  34. "blank" is placement of medication over a partially exposed pulp.
    indirect pulp cap
  35. "blank" is application of dental material with an exposed or nearly exposed dental pulp.
    Direct pulp cap
  36. "blank is complete removal of vital pulp from a tooth.
    • Pulpectomy
    • also referred as root canal therapy
  37. What dental instrument has tiny projections and can be used to remove pulp tissue?
  38. can endodontic files be placed in a handpiece for use?
    only rotary-operated files and burs
  39. What type of file is best suited to shape and contour the pulpal canal?
    k-type file
  40. Why is a rubber stop used on a file?
    to prevent perforation(making a hole) of the apex of a tooth
  41. What does obturate mean?
    • Process of filling a root canal.
    • Objective is to place a fluid-tight seal in the canal from apical to coronal to prevent re-entry of microorganisms
  42. "blank" is a double-ended isntrument that is long and straight which helps locate canal openings.
    endodontic explorer
  43. "blank" has a very long shank which allows to reach deep into the canal to remove coronal pulp tisue, decay, and temporary cements.
    Endodontic spoon excavator
  44. "blank" are Instruments that condense and adapt the gutta-percha point into the canal.
    • spreaders- pointed tip
    • plugger- flat tip
  45. "balnk" is instrument used for placement of temporary restorations and removal and placement of gutta-percha.
    Glick #1
  46. What type of file is best suited for canal enlargement?
  47. "blank" are inserted into the canal to absorb the irrigated solutionand to dry canal canal.
    paper points
  48. What type of irrigation solutions are available for root canal therapy?
    • Sodium hypochlorite
    • Hydrogen peroxide
    • Parachlorophenol
  49. The irrigation material most commonly used during root canal therapy is
    diluted sodium hypochlorite
  50. "blank" is cement-type material that seals out the unfilled voids during the obturation process.
    Root canal sealers
  51. What type of moisture control is recommended for root canal therapy?
    dental dam
  52. What surface of an anterior tooth will the dentist enter when performing root canl therapy?
    • lingual surface
    • posterior teeth- occlusal surface
  53. What are the anesthetic techniques of choice for endodontic treatment?
    • Infiltration for maxillary teeth
    • Nerve block for mandibular teeth
  54. "blank" is to remove or clean out the pulpal canal.
    debridement- remove bacteria, necrotic tissue, organic debris and smooth and shape for filling to adapt to walls
  55. What is the sucess rate of root canal therapy?
    90 to 95% of the time
  56. What surgical procedure involves removal of the apex of a root?
  57. "blank" is surgery that may be necessary to determine why healing has not occurred after root canal therapy
    Exploratory surgery
  58. "blank" is surgical removal of infectious material surrounding the apex of a root.
    Apical curettage
  59. "blank" is small restoration placed at the apex of a root. When apical seal is not adequate.
    Retrograde restoration (root end filling)
  60. "blank" is removal of one or more roots without removal of the crown of the tooth.
    root amputation
  61. "blank" is surgical separation of a multirooted tooth through the furcation area.
  62. Root canal therapy process?
    • 1. Prepare field of operation- anesthetic
    • 2. Removing the pulp- irrigate
    • 3. Cleaning and Shaping the canal- files, rubber stop, irrigation, paper points,
    • 4. Preparing to fill the Canal- gutta-percha, take working lenght radiograph,
    • 5. Filling canal- remove master cone, apply sealer, Glick #1, plugger, place temporary restoration, posttreatment radiograph. check occlusion
    • 6. Posttreatment instructions and follow up
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Ch54 review
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