Ch5 Chemistry

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Ch5 Chemistry
2011-11-06 20:03:31

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  1. Define Matter:
    Is anything that occupies space.
  2. What are the 3 basic forms that matter exist in?
    • 1) Solids
    • 2) Liquids
    • 3) Gases
  3. Solid:
    Matter with definite weight, volume, & shape.
  4. Liquids:
    Matter with definite weight & volume, but NO shape.
  5. Gases:
    Matter with definite weight, but indefinite volume & shape.
  6. List the 2 ways that matter can be changed from to another.
    • 1) Physical Change:
    • Change in the physical characteristics of a substance without creating a new substance.

    • 2) Chemical Change:
    • Change in a substance that creates a new substance with chemical characteristics different from those of the original substance.
  7. Organic Chemistry:
    Deals with all matter that is now living or was alive at one time. Has carbone present, such as plants and animals.
  8. Inorganic Chemistry:
    Studies all matter that is not alive. Has never been alive & does not contain carbon, such as rocks,water & minerals.
  9. Define Element:
    Basic sutances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
  10. List the 5 elements that are skin, hair, & nails.
    • 1) Carbon
    • 2) Oxygen
    • 3) Hydrogen
    • 4) Nitrogen
    • 5) Sulfer
  11. Define Atoms:
    Are smallest comlpete unit of an element.
  12. List & define the 3 main parts of an Atom.
    1) Protons- Have positve electrical charge & identify the atom.

    2) Neutrons- Have no electrical charge, they are neutral (it determines the weight of the atom).

    3) Electrons- Have a negitive electrical charge. They make it possible for atoms to unite with other atoms to form bonds, under sertain circumstances.
  13. Define Molecule:
    When unstable atoms combine chemically by sharing electrons, they form a molecule. A molecule is two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond.
  14. Define a Compound:
    Different atoms joined together as molecules become the smallest part of a compound.
  15. Amino Acids join together in chains to become (a)__
    a) Proteins
  16. Hair is made of (a)__% Keratin protein & (b)__% trace minerals.
    • a) 97%
    • b) 3%
  17. List the 4 side bonds:
    • 1) Hydrogen Bonds
    • 2) Salt Bonds
    • 3) Disulfide Bonds
    • 4) van der Waal's Forces
  18. Which side bond is the most important when perming or chemical relaxing?
    Disulfide Bond
  19. List the 6 stages of hair formation:
    1) Hair begins with individual atoms, that smallest unit of matter.

    2) These atoms unit by sharing electrons to become molecules of amino acids.

    3) One end of one amino acid bonds to the opposite end of another to form the peptide or end bond.

    4) The amino acids create polypeptide protein chains.

    5) The individual protein chains bond side-to-side to other chains by hydrogen, salt, disulfide bonds & van der Waal's Forces.

    6) The bonding of protein chains to other protein chains make human hair.
  20. What does pH stand for?
    Potential Hydrogen
  21. What is pH?
    A unit of measurement that indicates whether a substance is acidic, neutral, or alkaline.
  22. The pH measurement scale ranges from (a)__ to (a)__ with number (b)__ as neutral. Numbers less then 7 indicate (c)__ while numbers greater the 7 indicate (d)__.
    • a) 0 to 14
    • b) 7
    • c) Acid
    • d) Alkaline
  23. The scale is Logarithmic, which means?
    Each step or number increases by multiples of 10.
  24. pH Balanced means?
    The pH is balanced at a certain number.
  25. Acid Balanced means?
    Balanced within the acid range of 4.5 to 5.5
  26. Solutions:
    Mixtures of 2 or more kinds of molecules, evenly dispersed. (1 of 6 Cosmetic Classifications)
  27. Suspensions:
    Mixtures of 2 or more kinds of molecules BUT have a tendency to seperate when left standing & need to be shaken before used. (2 of 6 Cosmetic Classifications)
  28. Emulsions:
    Formed when 2 or more nonmixable substances are united with the help of a binder. (3 of 6 Cosmetic Classifications)
  29. Ointments:
    Mixtures of organic susbstances & medical agents. Usually found in a semi-solid form. (4 of 6 Cosmetic Classifications)
  30. Soaps:
    Mixtures of fats & oils converted to fatty acids by heat & then purified. (5 of 6 Cosmetic Classifications)
  31. Powders:
    Equal mixtures of inorganic & organic substances that do not dissolve in water & that have been sifted & mixed until free of course gritty particles. (6 of 6 Cosmetic Classifications)
  32. What is considered a Universal Solvent?
  33. What are 2 items the Universal Solvents cannot dissolve?
    Oil & Wax
  34. Dilute Solution:
    Contains small quantity of solute in comparison to the quantity of solvent.
  35. Concentrated Solution:
    Contains large quantity of solute in comparison to the quantity of solvent.
  36. Saturated Solution:
    Cannot take or dissolve more of the solute then it already holds at a given temperature.
  37. What is a Surfactant?
    A cleansing agent the removes oil & dirt from hair.
  38. Describe the 2 part molecule of a suface active agent.
    • 1) Water loving Hydrophilic (attracted to water)
    • 2) Oil loving Lipophilic (attrated to oil)
  39. What is the differance between soft & hard water?
    Hard Water- Contains salt of calcium, magnisium, and other minerals.

    Soft Water- Contains very small amounts of minerals.
  40. List 2 ways water can be purified:
    • 1) Sedimentation
    • 2) Filtration
  41. List the 12 Shampoos:
    • 1) All Purpose
    • 2) Acid Balanced (Non-stripping)
    • 3) Plain
    • 4) Soapless
    • 5) Medicated
    • 6) Clearifying
    • 7) Ani-Dandiruff
    • 8) Liquid Dry
    • 9) Powder Dry
    • 10) Conditioning
    • 11) Color
    • 12) Shampoo for Thinning Hair
  42. List the 8 Rinses & Conditioners:
    • Rinses
    • 1) Vinegar & Lemon (acid) Rinses
    • 2) Cream Rinses
    • 3) Medicated Rinses

    • Conditioners
    • 4) Instant Conditioner
    • 5) Normalizing Conditioner
    • 6) Body Building Conditioner
    • 7) Moisturizing Conditioner
    • 8) Customized Conditioner
  43. Amines/ Quats:
    Make the hair easier to comb & control static.
  44. Dimethicones:
    Give softness to feel of hair without weighing down. They are a form of silicone.
  45. Fatty Alcohols & Acids:
    Give hair a smooth feel when dry & make it easier to comb through. Creamy in texture & helps retain moisture.
  46. Rebonding Lotion is also reffered to as:
  47. Waving Lotion is also reffered to as:
    Processing Lotion
  48. pH of Alkaline Waves:
  49. pH of Acid Waves:
  50. What chemical is added to shorten the processing time of Alkaline Waving?
    Ammonium Hydroxide
  51. What chemical is responsible for the swelling that occurs when using an Alkaline Wave?
    Ammonium Hydroxide
  52. What is the main chemical ingredient found in Acid Waves?
    Glyceryl Monothioglycolate
  53. The main ingredient found in most Neutralizers is either (a)__ (a)__, (b)__ (b)__, or (c)__ (c)__.
    • a) Hydrogen Peroxide
    • b) Sodium Peroborate
    • c) Sodium Bromate
  54. pH of Sodium Hydroxide Relaxer:
  55. pH of Ammonium Thyoglcolate Relaxer:
  56. Which of the 2 relaxers is irreversible?
    Sodium Hydroxide
  57. What is curl reformation/soft curl perm?
    A service used to loosen the texture of curly to tightly curled hair.
  58. What bonds are rearranged in Perming, Relaxing & Curl Reformation?
    Disulfide Bond
  59. List the 5 General Categories that haircolor products fall into:
    • 1) Non-Oxidative
    • 2) Oxidative
    • 3) Lighteners
    • 4) Developers
    • 5) Vegetable, Metallic, & Compound Dyes
  60. Define Oxidants:
    (Often called Developers) They are products that have the ability to release oxygen which is needed for a chemical change.
  61. What color is also reffer to as Analine Derivative Tints?
    Permanent Hair Color
  62. Paraphenylene Diamine is found in what color product?
    Permanent Hair Color
  63. Lightening the hair is also referred to as (a)__ or (b)__.
    • a) Bleaching
    • b) Decolorizing
  64. Lightening that hair always involove (a)__ of the natural (b)__ in the hair.
    • a) Oxidation
    • b) Melanin
  65. Since activators can double the strength of Hydrogen Peroxide, no higher the (a)__ volume is recommended when mixing for an on-the-scalp application.
    a) 20 Volume
  66. What product is the most common developer or oxidizing agent used in hair coloring & lightening.
    Hydrogen Poroxide
  67. What is the pH of Peroxide?
  68. What is a Hydrometer?
    Used to measure the strength (volume) of Hydrogen Peroxide.
  69. What is usually the shelf life of Hydrogen Peroxide?
    3 Years
  70. Why are Vegetable, Metallic, & Compound dyes not used professionally?
    Because they are potentially harmful to you & your client & cannot have ANY chemical services preformed on/over them.
  71. Ingredients Commonly found in Moisturizers:
    (Function as a moisture barrier or attract moisture from environment)
    • Cetyl Alcohol (Fatty Alcohol)
    • Dimethicone Silicone
    • Isopropyl Lanolate
    • Palmitate
    • Lanolin/Lanolin Alcohols & Oils
  72. Ingredients Commonly found in Preservatives & Antioxidents:
    (Prevent product discoloration)
    • Trisodium
    • Tetrasodium Edatate
    • Tocopherol
  73. Ingredients Commonly found in Antimicrobials:
    (Fight bacteria)
    • Butyl
    • Propyl
    • Ethyl
    • Phenoxyethanol
    • Quaternium-15
  74. Ingredients Commonly found in Thickeners:
    (Used in stick products)
    • Candelilla
    • Carnauba
    • Microcrystalline Waxes
    • Carbomer
    • Ployethlene Thickeners
  75. Ingredients Commonly found in Solvents:
    (Used to dilute)
    • Butylene Glycol
    • Propylene Glycol
    • Cyclomethicone
    • Ethanol
    • Glycerin
  76. Ingredients Commonly found in Emulsifiers:
    (Breaks up & refines)
    • Glyceryl Monostearate
    • Laurmide DEA
    • Polysorbates
  77. What are the 3 wyas of testing pH?
    • 1) Nitrazine (pH) Paper
    • 2) pH Pencil
    • 3) pH Meter
  78. List the pH for the following Shampoo & Condtioners:

    a) Acid Balanced Shampoo-
    b) Alkaline Shampoo-
    c) Acidifying Conditioner-
    d) Deep Penetrating Conditioner-
    • a) 4.5-5.5
    • b) 7.0-9.0
    • c) 2.2-5.5
    • d) 3.5-5.5
  79. List the pH for the following Perms & Relaxers:

    *a) Acid Perm-
    *b) Alkaline Perm-
    *c) Relaxer-
    d) Neutralizer-
    • *a) 6.9-7.2
    • *b) 8.0-9.5
    • *c) 11.5-14.0
    • d) 3.0-7.0
  80. List the pH for the following Colors & Lighteners:

    *a) Oil Bleach-
    *b) Powder Bleach-
    *c) Tints-
    *d) Hydrogen Peroxide-
    • *a) 8.0-9.5
    • *b) 10.0-11.0
    • *c) 9.5-10.5
    • *d) below 4.0
  81. List the pH for the following Finishing Products:

    a) Mousse-
    b) Gel-
    c) Hair Spray-
    • a) 5.5-6.0
    • b) 4.5-5.5
    • c) 5.0-6.0
  82. List the pH for the following Skin Products:

    a) Cleanser-
    b) Toner-
    c) Moisturizer-
    • a) 4.5-5.5
    • b) 5.5-6.0
    • c) 5.5-6.0
  83. List the pH for the following Nail Products:

    a) Polish Remover-
    b) Cuticle Cream-
    c) Hand Lotion-
    • a) 5.0-6.0
    • c) 5.5-6.0
    • d) 4.5-5.5