What characteristics of plants separate them from fungi and animals?
Plants are autotrophs that can perform photosynthesis , fugi are heterotrophs and cannot. Animals are heterotrophs and lack cell walls, plants have cell walls and are autotrophs.
What characteristics of plnats separate them from algae (Kingdom Protista)?
Plants are primarily terrestial, exclusively multicellular, and have meristems. Algae are predominantly aquatic, lack meristems, and are primarily universal and do not have an alteration of generations.
What are the different levels of the classification hierarchy?
What are the different levels of the plant classification hierarchy?
How is the classification hierarchy different for plants?
Division rather then phylem.
How do you write a scientific name? What parts of the classification hierarchy is it composed of?
What are the major groupings of Kingdom Plantae?
1. Non vascular & seedless (uses spores to reproduce)
2. Vascular & seedless (spore producing)
3. Vascular with naked seeds (gymnosperms, no flowers or fruit but still produce seeds)
4. Vascular with covered seeds
What are the divisions of non vascular & seedless Kingdom Plantae?
What is the common name for hepatophyta?
Description of Hepatophyta.
Very, very short (leafy)
Gametophyte phase dominates
What is the common name for Anthocerophyta?
Description of Anthocerophyta.
Short & stubby (look like horns)
Gemetophyte phase dominates
What is the common name of Bryophyta?
Description of Bryophyta.
Gemtophyte phase dominates
What is the common name of Lycophyta?
Description of Lycophyta.
Earliest true roots and leaves found on fossilized ancestors.
Diploid sporophyte phase is dominated.
What is the common name for Pteridophyta?
Description of Pteridophyta.
Diploid sporophyte phase is dominanat.
Most common & variety.
What are the divisions of vasclar with naked seeds Kingdom Plantae?
What is the common name for Pinophyta?
Description of Pinophyta.
Largest plants on planet.
Needles as leaves.
Dominant tree at high alititude & upper latitude.
What is the common name of Cycadophyta?
Description of Cycadophyta.
Needles as leaves.
Male & female separate individuals.
What is the common name of Gnetophyta?
Description of Gnetophyta.
Everything that doesn't fit anywhere else.
What is the common name of ginkgophyta?
Description of Ginkgophyta.
Fanned, dichotomas leaves.
Native to China.
Turns bright yellow in fall.
Males=have no seeds, papier & clustered.
Female=large & round.
What is the common name for Anthophyta?
Flowering plants (Angiosperms).
Description of Anthophyta.
Plants have fruits.
Seeds contain endosperm (food->proteins & carbs).
Where are gymnosperms located?
Northern hemisphere. They are the dominant trees of this area.
What is the diversity of gymnosperms?
About 600 species exist.
What are the leaves of gymnosperms like?
Needle-like (in clusters or bundles called fasicles of 2-5 leaflets each).
Describe the harsh environment that pine trees must survive:
Bitter cold, very windy, traditionally dry environment, very low nutrients in the soil.
What is the leaf structure of pine trees?
1. Hypodermis below the epidermis.
2. Thick cuticle.
3. Sunken stomata
4. No air spaces in mesophyll.
5. Endodermis around vascular bundle.
6. Resin canals.
What is the adaptive advantage of the hypodermis being below the epidermis?
Save water through suberin, provides insulation through slightly thicker cells.
What is the adaptive advantage of a thick cuticle?
Much better at conserving water.
What is the adaptive advantage of sunken stomata?
Protects it from the wind, which conserves water.
What is the adaptive advantage of no air spaces in mesophyll?
Water found in cells not spaces.
What is the adaptive advantage of endodermis around the vascular bundle?
Controls water movement & loss from vascular bundle to mesophyll.
What is the adaptive advantage of resin canals?
Repels insects & conserves water (protects it from being wounded).
Why is gymnosperm wood "softer" than the wood of deciduous broadleaf trees?
Xylem is made of mostly tracheids rather then vessels.
How is extremely thick bark an adaptive advantage for gymnosperms?
More insulation from cold temperatures, and protection from forest fires.
The roots of gymnosperms are associated with a fungus. This relationship is called...?
Why do roots often have difficulty obtaining water?
Because of frozen topsoil.
Roots of adjacent pines often interweave together. WHY is this an advantage?
Harder for them to be knocked down, better anchorage.
What are the two types of gymnosperm reproduction?
1. Pollen cones
2. Seed cones
What are pollen cones called?
What do pollen cones consist of?
Papery or membranous scales arranged in a spiral or whorls around an axis.
When are pollen cones usually produced?
During the spring.
Where do pollen cones usually develop?
Toward the tips of the branches in clusters of up to 50 or more.
Where are are pollen cones found in the tree?
The bottom, to prevent self-pollination.
What are seed cones called?
How long do seed cones live?
Much larger than pollen cones, these live for three years.
Describe year one, year two, and year three of seed cones.
Year one: Immature
Year two: Woody scales open and receive pollen
Year three: Scales open and release fully developed seeds
Where are seed cones found in the tree?
Anthos = ?
Phyta = ?
What is the diversity of angiosperms?
Largest and most diverse division with more than 235,000 known species.
What is the physical size of angiosperms?
Tiny duckweeds (1mm) to large eucalyptus (rival redwoods in total mass).
What are the growth forms of angiosperms?
Woody trees, short shrubs, vines, and green herbs. (Every possible growth form).
What is the location of angiosperms?
Nearly everywhere (no artic varieties). This includes aquatic areas and deserts.
What is the angiosperm's mode of nutrition?
1. Most of them are autotrophic...of course.
2. Some are parasitic.
3. Some are saprotroph.
Use haustoria to take food and water from host xylem and phloem.
Parasitize host plants and produce chlorophyll.
Their nutrition comes from the absorption in solution of dead organic matter (dark enbironments).
In the reproductive process it takes two sperm to produce a seed.
What does sperm #1 produce in double fertilization?
What does sperm #2 produce in double fertilization?
Food and protein for the seed.
What does angiosperm mean?
A plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel.
A fertile, modified leaf (one of four flower parts). Makes up the "vessel". They evolved from leaves that rolled towards the center to enclose the ovules.
What are pistils composed of?
2 or more united carpels.
What does a seed develop from?
A fertilized ovule.
Where are ovules found?
What do ovaries with fertilized ovules develop into?
Fruit that contain seeds.
What are the two large classes of the classification of Division Anthophyta?
a. Magnoliopsida (Dicot)
b. Liliopsida (Monocot)
Seed description of dicots.
Seed description of monocots.
Flower parts of dicots.
Mult. of 4 & 5.
Flower parts of monocots.
Mult. of 3
Leaf Vein Pattern of Dicots.
Leaf vein pattern of monocots.
Root cross section of dicots.
Xylem in the shape of an x in the vascular cylinder.
Root cross section of monocots.
Pith surrounded by xylem and phloem in vascular cylinder.
Stem cross section of dicots.
Ring pattern (candy corn).
Stem cross section of monocots.
Pollen grain of dicots.
Pollen grains of monocots.
What are the sterile parts of flowers?
The stalk of the flower. The swollen tip of the this is where the flower attaches is the receptacle.
Collectively known as the caylx. Also protects the bud.
Collectively known as the corolla. Also known as the attractants.
What are the fertile parts of the plant?
What is the male part of the plant?
Makes the pollen and sperm.
Holds up the anther.
What is the female part of the plant?
Pistil (Fused Carpels, that can be subdivided into three parts).
Sticky, catches pollen.
Holds up the stigma.
Has sepals, petals, stamen, and pistil/carpels.
Missing one or more of the four flower parts.
Has stamen and pistil/carpels, and are therefore bisexual.
Has stamen OR pistil, Not Both (ex. Pumpkin, Cucumber) These are therefore unisexual.
Imperfect flower that lacks carpels/pistil (has stamin, male).
Imperfect flower that lacks stamens (has carpels, female).
Staminate and carpellate flowers on the same plant (1 plant can reproduce by itself).
Staminate and carpellate flowers are found on separate plants.
What kind of pollination must take place in dioecious species?
Every COMPLETE flower has to be...
PERFECT flowers DO NOT have to be...
What are the positions of Ovary?
Calyx and corolla attached to receptacle at base of ovary (ovary above receptacle).
Calyx and corolla attached to top of recptacle which surrounds the ovary (ovary below receptacle).
Cluster of flowers all attached to the same primary peduncle).
1. Each flower is attached to a pedicel which is then attached to a main peduncle.
2. The shape of the inflorescence depends on the arrangement of pedicels on the peduncle. For example a spike is one tall peduncle with many short pedicels attached to it.
In most animals, the only haploid cells (cells with one set of chromosomes or "n") are what?
The gametes (egg and sperm) and the cells that become them.
In plants however, there is an alternation between a diploid (2n) sporophyte phas and a haploid (n) gametophyte phase. What is this referred to as?
The alternation of generations.
What are the pollination vectors?
What type of animals are pollination vectors?
Which of the three methods of pollination vectors are the most efficient, and why?
Animals, they are MUCH more specific. Animals go directly to the flower while wind/water are totally up to chance.
What are the adaptive strategies for plant pollination?
3. Specific Structural Adaptations
What are rewards for plant pollination?
What are nectaries?
Nectar secreting glands.
What are the components of nectar (what are insects gaining)?
Sugar & amino acids.
What are the components of pollen?
Protein (16-60%), lipids (3-10%).
What are example plants of pollen?
Poppies, peonies, kiwi fruit.
What are attractants?
What are the different odors?
1) Flowery scents
3) Dung/Rotten Meat
Uh...smells like a flower (rose, citrus, vanilla).
Sex attractant, that tricks insects into thinking flower.
Tricks insects into thinking the flower is food.
What do various colors appeal to?
Who do some color patterns appear different?
To insects who can see ultraviolet patterns.
What are colored spots or lines that draw attention to nectar/pollen?
What are the specific structural adaptations?
a) landing platforms
b) upside down flowers
c) long nectar tubes
d) force mechanisms
f) mimicry (mates)
Embryo formation without fertilization taking place (has seeds). Involving only the female reproductive structures, the megasporocyte undergoes mitosis rather than meiosis, and it produces a diploid egg cell (becomes a zygote) and two polar nuclei (becomes diploid endosperm). These structures will become a seed (without fertilization or male structures at all!)
What is the adaptive advantage of apomixis of seed development?
They can produce a seed even if they aren't pollinated. Great in polar regions where pollinators are absent.
What is a tomato considered botanically?
A fruit, however in 1893 it was legally ruled a vegetable based on popular viewpoint by the public that it is NOT A DESSERT.
A ripened ovary that may include accessary parts.
What do accessory fruits have?
Additional floral parts associated. For example, an apple has a core (which is the ovary) and it is surrounded by the flower's receptacle that is now fleshy.
Consisting of 3 distinct regions, it is the wall of the fruit.
What are the fruit regions of the fruit?
Skin of fruit.
Tissue between exocarp and endocarp.
Inner boundary surrounding the seeds-may be hard like a peach pit, may be papery like in apples, or may not be distinguishable from the mesocarp.
What are the two major groups of fruits?
Fleshy or dry
What are the simple fleshy fruits?
Where do simple fruits develop from?
A flower with a single carpel/pistil, or fused carpels.
A single seed enclosed by a hard, stony endocarp or pit; usually develops from flowers with a superior ovary containing a single ovule.
These are modified berries with tough, leathery coverings/rinds that contain oil glands. Its fleshy/juicy interior is composed of separate sections, called carpels, filled with fluid-filled vesicles that are actually specialized hair cells.
What are examples of hesperidium?
Citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, limes, and grapefruits).
These are similar to true berries but they develop from flowers bearing inferior ovaries (true berries form from superior ovaries). These fruits traditionally have a tough rind (exocarp) such as pumpkins, squash, watermelon, and cucumbers.
Pepo (a type of false berry)
Most flesh comes from the enlarged floral tube that grows up around the ovary.
What are examples of pome?
Apples, pears, quince.
Develop from a single flower with several to many pistils.
What are examples of aggregate?
Raspberries, blackberries, strawberries.
Develop from several to many individual flowers in a single inflorescence.
What are examples of multiple fruit?
Pineapples, figs, osage oranges.
What are the two types of dry fruits?
Dry fruits that split at maturity.
What are the types of the dehiscent dry fruits?
Splits along one side or seam only, exposing seeds within.
What are examples of follicles?
Milkweed, larkspur, peonies.
Splits along 2 side seams.
What are examples of legumes?
Beans, peas, lentils, peanuts.
Split along 2 side seams but seeds are on a central partition.
What are examples of siliques?
Mustard family; cabbage, raddish, broccoli..(seeds don't fall out).
Most common of the dry fruits that split, have at least 2 carpels split in various ways.
What are examples of capsules?
Dry fruits that do not split at maturity.
What are indehiscent dry fruits?
Only the base of the seed is attached to the pericarp.
What are examples of achenes?
Sunflower, strawberry "seeds".
One seeded fruits, larger that achene's and the pericarp is harder and thicker, develop with bracts at the base like acorns.
What are examples of nuts?
Chestnuts, acorns, hickory nuts.
Pericarp is united with the seed and they can't be separated the seed.
What are examples of grains?
Corn, wheat, barley.
Pericarp surrounding the seed is extended out in the form of a "wing".
What are examples of samaras?
Ashes, elms, maples.
What are adaptations for dispersal by wind?
1. Curved Wings
2. Inflated sacs
4. Cottony or Willowy hairs
5. Minute (Tiny) seeds
What are curved wings?
What are inflated sacs?
Hop hornbeam (which increases their buoyancy).
What are plumes?
Buttercup and Sunflower Families (Dandelions).
What are Cottony or Willowy hairs?
What are Minute (Tiny) seeds?
Orchids and heaths.
What are adaptations for dispersal by animals?
How do laxitives help the adaptation for dispersal of fruit and seeds by animals?
a. Speeds the passage of the seed through the digestive trackes of birds and mammals.
b. Some seeds won't germinate unless they have passed through digestive acids.
How might the need to pass through an animlas digestive track be an adaptive advantgae for that plant species survival?
To prevent the digestive process from destroying the seed and to place the seed away from the plant.
Stick to fur of animals. The seeds drop off somewhere else.
What are the adaptions for dispersal by water?
1. Inflated/buoyant sacs
2. Thick/Waxy coverings
These sacs full of air will float large distances until they reach a suitable habitat.
What is an example of an inflated/buoyant sac?
Protection against the water it's in (prevents it from growing in the ocean).
What are the unique dispersal mechanisms?
1. Mechanical/splitting action
In response to the heat of a warm-blooded animal, changes in humidity, or drying out, seed capsules will launch their seeds.
What are examples of mechanical/splitting action dispersal mechanisms?
Touch-me-nots, dwarf mistletoes, filarees.
How do humans act as unique dispersal mechanisms?
Act as kowing and specific dispersal agents.
What is the structure of a seed?
3. Seed Coat
Point where ovule was attached to ovary wall.
Tiny pore next to the hilum.
Covering of the seed...duh.
Cotyledons and immature plant.
What is the embryo composed of?
b. Embryo axis
Seed leaves-food storage organs.
What is the embryo axis split up into?
Short stem axis above cotyledon attachment.
Stem axis below cotyledon attachment.
Embryonic shoot with immature leaves.
What does endosperm serve as in monocots (Ex. corn)?
Serves as a food storage tissue in addition to the single cotyledon.
A seed must first be viable (capable of germination).
What is germination split up into?
2. Breaking of dormancy
Brought about by mechanical or physiological circumstances (or both!).
What are the two types of dormancy?
Thick seed coat, lot of wax.
What is the breaking of dormancy?
b. After Ripening
d. Environmental regulation
Nicking or breaking seed coat.
Embryo needs further development, the seeds will not germinate in a freshly fallen fruit.
Cold temperature treatment.
*The amount of available water and oxygen has an impact
*Light may inhibit or stimulate development (depends on species preference)