Chapter 4 & 5

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Chapter 4 & 5
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2011-11-09 22:49:43
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Chapter 4 & 5
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  1. 4 effects of global warming
    • higher temperatures
    • rising sea levels
    • more intense storms
    • more hurricanes
  2. What is global warming attributed to?
    increase in methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, and carbon dioxide
  3. Global warming
    the progressive increase of the Earth's average temperature
  4. greenhouse effect
    the presence of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  5. What is the function of cellular respiration?
    Energy stored in chemical bonds of food are turned into energy
  6. Phosphorylation
    transferring a phosphate to another molecule
  7. respiration equation
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (as ATP)
  8. What is cellular respiration
    converts energy from food into stored ATP - fuels cells
  9. Where does most of the cellular respiration occur?
    In the mitochondria
  10. what are the steps of cellular respiration?
    • 1. Glycolysis
    • 2. Citric Acid Cycle
    • 3. Electron Transport Chain
  11. Where does glycolysis occur?
    Cytosol
  12. What happens in glycolysis?
    glucose breaks down to 3 carbons, 2 puyruvic acid molecules -- 2 ATP molecules
  13. Matrix
    semifluid medium inside the mitochondrian
  14. what does the citric acid cycle release?
    Electrons from the carbon containing compounds it receives from glycolysis
  15. Define NAD+
    electron carrier utilized by cellular respiration - nicotamide adenine dinucleotide
  16. fats are broken down into"
    fatty acids, glycerol
  17. carbs are broken down into what?
    Glucose
  18. proteins are broken down into what?
    Amino Acids
  19. urea
    breakdown of amino acids, excreted in urine
  20. lactic acid
    produced by actions of NADH-byproduct of human fermentation
  21. What foods are produced from anaerobic respiration?
    yogurt, sour cream, cheese, soy sauce, bread, alcohol
  22. Water can absorb and store a large amount of heat in its hydrogen bonds
    true
  23. tumor
    mass of cells that has no apparent function in the body
  24. benign
    tumors that don't affect surrounding structures and stay in one place
  25. malignant
    tumors that invade surrounding structures
  26. metastasis
    when cancer cells of a malignant tumor break away and start new cancers in distant locations
  27. lymphatic system
    collects fluids lost from capillaries
  28. lymph nodes
    structures that filter lost fluids
  29. 3 ways cancer cells differ from normal cells
    • divide when they shouldn't
    • invade surrounding tissues
    • move to another location in the body
  30. 8 risk factors for getting cancer
    • tobacco
    • age
    • diet
    • obesity
    • lack of exercise
    • sun exposure
    • fair skin
  31. 9 types of cancer and risk factors with each
    • ovary
    • breast
    • cervix
    • testicle
    • blood
    • skin
    • lung
    • colon and rectum
  32. free radicals
    remove electrons from other molecules
  33. why is cell division necessary?
    • to heal wounds
    • replace damaged cells
    • help organisms grow and reproduce
  34. define genes
    instructions in DNA
  35. chromosomes
    stuctures that contain genes
  36. why do chromosomes condense?
    • easier to move
    • less likely to break
  37. sister chromatids
    copied chromosomes
  38. centromere
    middle of replicated chromosome
  39. what makes up dna?
    nitrogenous bases with a sugar, phosphate backbone
  40. semiconservative replication
    DNA that contains half of conserved parental DNA and half daughter DNA
  41. What does DNA polymerase do?
    assist DNA replication
  42. what are 3 phases of cell cycle
    • interphase
    • mitosis
    • cytokinesis
  43. 3 phases of interphase and what happens in each?
    • G1 most of cell's organelles duplicate, cells grow larger
    • S DNA replicates
    • G2 proteins are synthesized that will help drive mitosis to completion
  44. What are the phases of mitosis and what happens?
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
  45. cytokinesis
    cellular division
  46. how do animal cells split?
    cytokinesis
  47. where are the checkpoints in the cell cycle?
    during G1, G2, and metaphase
  48. mutation
    change in the sequence of DNA
  49. tumor suppressors
    genes that carry instructions for producing proteins that suppress cell division if conditions aren't favorable
  50. antiogenesis
    formation of new blood vessels
  51. contact inhibition
    a property that keeps cells from dividing when doing so would require them to pile up on each other
  52. anchorage dependence
    contact with underlying cells to stay in place
  53. radiation
    uses high energy particles to injure or destroy cells by damaging DNA
  54. meiosis
    form of cell division
  55. where does meiosis occur?
    specialized cells within gonads
  56. gametes
    specialized sex cells: sperm, eggs
  57. somatic cells
    cells that contain 46 chromosomes
  58. how many chromosomes do haploid and diploid cells have?
  59. autosomes
    22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes
  60. sister chromatids
    either of 2 duplicated, identical copies of a chromosome
  61. phases of meiosis and what happens in each phase
    • Prophase-nuclear envelope starts to break down, microtubules start to assemble, DNA condenses into chromosomes
    • Metaphase I-chromosomes align in middle of cell
    • Anaphase I-chromosomes separated by shortening of microtubules
    • Telophase I - 2 daugher cells, nuclear envelopes reform
    • Meiosis II-
  62. crossing over
    exchange of portions of chromosomes from one to another
  63. random alignment
    when members of homolagous pairs line up randomply with response to maternal or paernal origin and increase the diversity of the offspring
  64. nondisjunction
    failure of chromosomes to separate
  65. trisomy
    extra chromosome
  66. monsomy
    absence of one chromosome of a homologous pair
  67. examples of conditions of nondisjunction of autosomes
    • trisomy 21 - downs
    • trisomy 13 - patau
    • trisomy 18 - edwards
    • XO - turner
    • X- Meta
    • XXY - Klienfelter
    • xyy - condition

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