CH 18A Endocrine System
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What are the Six organs that posses Endocrine Qualities
- 1. Hypothalamus
- 2. Thalamus
- 3. Kidneys
- 4. Gastric and Insestinal Mucosa
- 5. Heart
- 6. Placenta
Hormones of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland
1. _______ (T3) increases rate of metobolism. Consists of a small peptide molecule bound to iodine before it cannot be made withour iodine
2. _______ (T4) Also known as Tetraiodothyronine, same as T3 of increasing metabolism
3. _______ (CT) decreases calcium storage in bone by stimulating osteoclasts and increase calcium reabsorption. Produces active form of Vitamin D in kidneys
4. _______ (PTH) increases calcium storage in bones by stimulating osteoblasts, thereby lowering blood calcium levels.
- 1. Triiodothyronine (T3)
- 2. Thyroxine (T4)
- 3. Calcitonin (CT)
- 4. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Seven (7) Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland
1. ___ ____ (ACTH) regulates endocrine activity of adrenal cortex, especially cortisol hormones
2. ___ ____ (GH or STH) also known as Somatotropin, stimulates proteins synthesis for muscle & bone growth and maintenance, plays a role in metabolism
3. ___ ___ ___ (TSH) stimulates thyroid gland to produce and secrete its hormone
4. ___ ___ ___ (FSH) in women stimulates estrogen production and development of ovarian follicle. In men, stimulates sperm production in the testes
5. ___ ____ (LH) triggers ovulation and development of corpus luteum in women, stimulates production of testosterone in men
6. ______ (PRL) stimulates milk production in mammary glands of women.
7. ___ ___ ___ (MSH) increases skin pigmentation by stimulating distribution of melanin granules
- 1. Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
- 2. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) (GH or STH)
- 3. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)
- 4. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- 5. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
- 6. Prolactin (PRL)
- 7. Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Two Hormones of Posterior Pituitary Gland
1. ___ ___ ____ (ADH) - promotes water retention by kidneys, alcahol consumption inhibits secretion thereby increasing urine production
2. _____ (OT) - stimulates uterine contacts and milk expression from mammary glands. A synthecic version is Pitocin which stimulates labor in women
Two Hormones of Pancreatic Inlets
3. _____ hormone - secreted by beta cells, only hormone that decreases blood glucose levels, necessary for metabolism.
4. _____ hormone - secreted by alpha cells, stimulated by low blood glucose levels, causing liver to break down stored glycogen into glucose
5. The only hormone of the Pineal Gland is the ________ hormone, involved in control of circadian rhythms (24 hour cycle) & development of sexual organs. When injected, actually produces drowsiness & inhibits LH hormone.
- 1. Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin)
- 2. Oxytocin
- 3. Insulin
- 4. Glucagon
- 5. Melatonin
Glandular secretions that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions and regulate the physiological activity of other cells. Because they circulate freely in the blood, they have the potential of coming into contact with every type of cell, however, they do not effect every cell they come in contact with.
What are Homones?
Six Hormones of the Adrenal Glands
1. ______ (secreted by Adrenal Cortex) - stimulates kidneys to conserve sodium, which triggers release of ADH, results in water retention, maintains mineral balance and blood volume
2. ______ (secreted by Adrenal Cortex) - effects carbs, protein and fat metabolism. In large amounts, produces anti-inflammatory response also known as Hydrocortisone
3. ___ ___ (secreted by Adrenal Cortex) - Maintains male sex characteristics
4. ___ ___ (secreted by Adrenal Cortex) - Believed to be phyiologically insignificant
5. ______ (secreted by Adrenal Medulla) - enhances & prolongs affects of sympathetic nervous system on the Autonomic Nervous System
6. ______ (secreted by Adrenal Medulla)- enhances & prolongs effects of sympathetic nervous system on the Autonomic Nervous System
- 1. Aldosterone
- 2. Cortisol
- 3. Adrenal Androgen
- 4. Adrenal Estrogen
- 5. Epinephrine
- 6. Norepinephrine
Four Hormones of the Gonads
1. _____ produced by ovaries and in placenta during pregnancy, responsible for female secondary sex characteristics. In menstral cycle, preps female organs for fertilization & helps keeps calcium in bones
2. _____ prepares the endometrium for pregnancy & help maintain corpus luteum once conception/implatation occurs. Slightly elevates blood & body temperature
3. _____ facilitates implantation of fertilized ovum, softens connective tissue in pregnant women in pelvic ligaments for fetal delivery & dilates the cervix
4. _____ promotes secondary sex chrateristics, libido (sex drive) and sperm production
- 1. Estrogen
- 2. Progesterone
- 3. Relaxin
- 4. Testosterone
1. The two hormones secreted by the THYMUS, _____ and ______ actually refer to two entire families peptides have a critical role in development of immune system and stimulate production of T-cells.
2. Produced by temporary gland in PLACENTA during pregnancy, ____ ____ ____ (hcG) hormone present in maternal blood and urine. Stimulates corpus luteum to secrete estrogen & progesterone.
3. Contained in the atrial walls of the HEART, ____ _____ (ANH) hormone, decreases sodium by triggering urine production, or diureses, decreases blood volume ane blood pressure, antagonist to ADH and Aldosterone
4. Secreted by the GASTRIC MUCOSA, ______ inititates production & secretion of gastric juices & stimulates bile & pancreatic enzyme emissions into small intestines.
5. The two hormones secreted by INTESTINAL MUCOSA, _______ hormone stimulates the pancreas to secrete alkaline liquid that neutralizes chyme and _______ hormone stimulates the gallbladder to release more bile & pancreas to secrete enzymes
- 1. Thymopoietin and Thymosin
- 2. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
- 3. Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
- 4. Gastrin
- 5. Secretin / Cholecystokinin
The Four Most Common Types of Hormones grouped by their chemical makeup
1. ____ ____ hormones that function as neurotransmitters & regulate blood pressure, waste elimination & body temperture. Found in Adrenal Medulla & thyroid (Catecholaminses, Histamine, Serotonin, Dopamine)
2. ________ hormones, or tissue hormones, alter smooth muscle contractions, blood flow, nerve impulse transmission & immune responses. Produced by almost every cell in body
3. ________ hormones, introduces series of chemical reactions to alter metabolism. Example hormones of pituitary, parathyroid and some hormones from the thyroid glands.
4. ________ hormones, alter cell activity by turning genes on or off. Examples of hormones of the adrenal cortex and gonads
- 1. Biogenic Amines
- 2. Eicosanoids
- 3. Peptide Hormones
- 4. Steroid Hormones
What is the Anatomy of the Endocrine System?
Adrenals, Gonads, Hormones, Pancreatic Islets, Parathyroids, Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Thyroid Gland, Hormones
Three Hormonal Control Systems of the Body
1. _____ _____ System: mechanism that triggers negative, or opposite response. Most hormone levels are regulated by a negative response. Example of this system are thyroid hormones
2. _____ _____ System: mechanism in which a Hormone stimulates or inhibits the release of other hormones, controls the secretion and way the hypothalamus communicates with pituitary gland
3. _____ _____ System: mechanism in which hormones are secreted by nerve stimulation. Example is release of Epinephrine and Norephinephrine from Adrenal Medulla. Helps maintain flight-or-flight response and is faster than Negative Feedback
- 1. Negative-Feedback System
- 2. Horomonal Control System
- 3. Neural Control System
The Endocrine Glands of the Body
1. _____ gland, bilobed gland that extends from hypothalamus & sits in sella turcica of sphenoid bone by stalklike structure infundibulum.
2. _____ gland, known as Pineal body, gland located on the posterior aspect of the brains diencephalon. Pine-cone shaped structure that function is not clear, produces and secretes melatonin
3. _____ gland, located at base of throat, posterior & inferior to larynx, a butterfly shaped bilobed gland connected in center by mass of tissue (Isthmus), produces Triodothyronine, Thyroxine and Calcitonin
4. _____ gland, four in number, tiny glands are located on posterolateral surface at thyroid lobes. Produce parathyroid hormones.
5. _____ gland, known as suprarenals are located superior to each kidney, among the most vascular organs in the body. Devided into 2 regions, cortex and medulla
6. __ ___ gland, known as Islets or Langerhans, specialized cells located in pancreas or pancreatic gland which are both endocrine and exocrine
7. _____ gland (Ovaries & Testes), reproductive glands, primary reproductive organs in both men and women.
- 1. Pituitary
- 2. Pineal
- 3. Thyroid
- 4. Parathyroid
- 5. Adrenal Glands
- 6. Pancreatic Islets
- 7. Gonads
Five Types of Exocrine Glands of the Endocrine System
1. _______ glands - secretes oil
2. _______ glands - secretes perspiration
3. _______ glands - secretes ear wax
4. _______ glands - secretes digestive enzymes
5. _______ glands - secrete mucus
- 1. Sebaceous
- 2. Sudoriferous
- 3. Ceruminous
- 4. Digestive
- 5. Mucous
The 6 Actions of the Endocrine System
1. Produces and secretes ______
2. Regulates activity of _____ muscle, _____ muscle and some glands
3. Regulate body activites such as growth, development and _______.
4. Assist body to adapt during times of stress such as _____, _____, ______ and starvation
5. Regulates ______ compostion and volume of body ____ and ____ inside cells
6. Contributes to the _______ process
- 1. Hormones
- 2. Smooth / Cardiac
- 3. Metabolism
- 4. Infection, Trauma, Dehydration
- 5. Chemical / Fluid / Fluid
- 6. Reproductive
Type of cell containing receptor sites that are chemically compatiable with their corresponding hormones. When they search out and come in contact with the receptor of the cell, they lock together like puzzle pieces, resulting chemical change produces the desired effect.
What are Target Cells?
A ductless gland that produces hormones. Has cells that the glandular secretions. Most hormones are released from one part of the body and travel through the bloodstream. Total weight of all these glands is about half a pound
What are Endocrine Glands?``
Glands that secrete products into ducts that may empty into body cavities, hollow center of organs or the body's surface. Example of secretions are ear wax, perspiration and oil
What are Exocrine Glands?
One of the System of the Human body working along with the nervous system, this system coordinate the functioning of all body's systems. Use chemical messengers called hormones. Regulates processes that continue for long periods. Contains ductless glands.
What is the Endocrine System?
1. ____ _____ :Inner region of the Adrenal Glands, arise from the ectoderm. The hormones, called neurohormones, mimic the effects of the sympathetic nervous system for sudden emergency energy. Secretes Epinephrine and Norephinrine
2. ____ _____ :Outer region of the Adrenal Glands, arise from embryonic tissue endoderm. The hormones here are Aldosterone, Corisol, andorgens and adrenal estrogens
3. ____ _____ of the Pituitary, also known as adenohypophsis, this lobe consist of 75% of total weight. 7 out of 9 hormones are produced here
4. ____ _____ of the Pituitary, also known as neurohypophysis, this lobe is not technically a gland as it does not produce the hormones it releases, Stores and releases hormones form Hypothalamus
5. _____ gland is a bilobed gland posterior to the sternum. Although it is considered primarily a lymphatic organ, hormones thymosin and thymopoietin are produced and secreted, giving it a endocrine gland role
6. _____ gland is the master of pituitary gland, sends hormones and nerve impulses to control secretions of pituitary gland. TRUE Master Gland
- 1. Adrenal Medulla
- 2. Adrenal Cortex
- 3. Anterior Lobe
- 4. Posterior Lobe
- 5. Thymus
- 6. Hypothalamus
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