Psyc 260

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original1tsn
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114631
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Psyc 260
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2011-11-05 20:30:19
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midterm
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psyc 260 second midterm notes
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  1. Primary sex characteristics
    • female: vagina, uterus, ovaries,
    • male: penis, testes, scrotum, prostate
  2. secondary sex characteristics
    • at puberty
    • female: growth spurt, mamerys,widening hips, fat deposits, further primary development
    • male: enlarged larnyx, deepening voice, face/chest hair, coarser skin, large heightening
  3. sex hormones
    • estrogens: females
    • androgens: males
  4. gender roles
    • cultures expectation for masculine or feminine behaviour,
    • attitudes, actions, personality traits,
  5. gender typing
    process of aquiring gender role characteristics
  6. gender identity
    individuals sense of being male or female
  7. Gender role development
    Biological influences
    hormones and chromosomes
  8. Gender role development
    Environmental influences
    parenting, surroundings, and culture on formation of identity
  9. Gender role development
    Social learning theory
    gender identity is formed through reinforcement of appropriate gender behaviour as well as imitation of gender models
  10. Gender role development
    Gender schema theory
    theory of gender identity acquisition in which a child developes a mental pattern, or schema, ffor being male or female and then organizes observed and learned behaviour around that schema
  11. stereotype
    a concept held about a person or group basedd on superficial, irrelevent characteristics
  12. Gender stereotype
    a concept held about a person or group based on gender
  13. sexism
    prejudice about males or females leading to unequal treatment
  14. benevolent sexism
    acceptance of posative stereotypes of malles and females that leads to unequal treatment
  15. androgyny
    characteristic of possesing the most positive personality characteristics of males or females regardless of actual sex
  16. male and female cognitive differences
    • male advantage in math and spacial skills
    • female advantage in verbal skills
  17. emotional expression
    • males tend to use report
    • females tend to use relate
  18. hermaphrodites/intersex
    posses bothe male and female sex organs
  19. stages of sexual response
    • excitement
    • plateau
    • orgasm
    • resolution
    • (male) refractory period
  20. sexual orientation
    a persons attraction or preferance for members of a particular sex
  21. heterosexual
    person atracted to oposite sex
  22. homosexual
    person atracted to same sex
  23. bisexual
    person atracted to both sexes
  24. organic sexual dysfunction
    caused by physical disorder
  25. psychological sexual dysfunction
    caused by mind( eg. stress)
  26. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder
    abnormally low desire for sexual activity
  27. sexual aversion disorder
    fear and gisgust of sexual contact
  28. female sexual arousal disorder
    desire is present but physical discomfort and lack of pleasure are experienced during sex
  29. male erectile disorder
    male cannot maintain erection long enough for sex
  30. male orgasmic disorder
    male cannot achieve orgasm through vaginal stimulation, even though fully aroused
  31. female orgasmic disorder
    female cannot achieve orgasm even if fully aroused
  32. premature ejaculation
    male orgasms shortly after penetration
  33. paraphilia
    sexual disorder where persons preferd method of sexual arousal and fulfillment is through sexual behavior that is unusual or socially unacceptable
  34. pedophilia
    deriving sexual pleasure from touching or having sexual relations with prepubescents or fantasizing about such
  35. fetishism
    a object or part of the body is the focus of sexual arousal
  36. exhibitionism
    exposure of normally clothed parts of body to unsuspecting and usually unwilling viewers."flashing"
  37. voyeurism
    obtain sexual arousal and gratification through watching others engage in sexual behaviuor or undress. "peeping"
  38. frotteurism
    becoming sexually aroused or gratified throught rubbing against a unwilling person, usually in crowded public place
  39. necrophilia
    sexual arousal comes from touching or having intercourse with a corpse
  40. transvetism
    sexual arousal and pleasure comes from wearing clothing of oposite sex
  41. STD
    can affect sexual organs and ability to reproduce, may result in pain, disfigurment, and death
  42. common bacterial STDs
    • Chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea
    • antibiotic treatable
  43. common viral STDs
    • genital herpes(also cold sores virus) and genital warts
    • niether curable and can lead to complications such as higher cancer risk
  44. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrom)
    • causes deterioration of imune system
    • drug treatments, no cure
  45. Sensation
    the activation of receptors in the various sense organs
  46. sensory receptors
    specialized forms of neurons
  47. sense organs
    • eyes
    • ears
    • nose
    • skin
    • taste buds
  48. just noticeable difference(lnd or differance threshold
    the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time
  49. absolute threshold
    the smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is present
  50. absolute threshold sight
    candle flame 30 miles off on clear dark night
  51. absolute threshold hearing
    watch tick 20 feet away in quiet room
  52. absolute threshold smell
    one drop of perfume diffused throughout a three room apartment
  53. absolute threshold taste
    1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 galons of water
  54. absolute threshold touch
    a bees wing falling on the cheek from 1 cm above
  55. subliminal stimuli
    • stimuli that are below the level of concious awareness
    • just strong enough to activate receptors but unaware of them
  56. limin, sublimin
    threshold, below threshold
  57. subliminal perception
    process by why subliminal stimuli act upon unconscious mind, inflencing behaviour
  58. habituation
    tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information
  59. sosory adaptation
    tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging
  60. microsaccades
    constant movemant of the eyes, tiny little vibrations called that people do not notice consciously; prevents sensory adaptation to visual stimuli
  61. brightness
    determined by amplitude of the wave- how high or low the wave actually is.
  62. colour
    • determened by wavelength
    • longer red shorter blue
  63. saturation
    refers to the purity of the colour people see; mixing in black or gray would also lessen the saturation
  64. cornea
    clear membrane that covers eye surface; protects the eye and is the structure that focuses most of the light coming into the eye
  65. radial kerototomy
    vision- improving tchnique that uses this fact by making small incisions in the cornea to change the focus of the eye
  66. aqueous humour
    next visual layer; fluid that nourshes the eye
  67. pupil
    hole through which visual light enters the eye
  68. iris
    round muscel that increase/deacreases light that enters eye
  69. lens
    another clear structure behind the iris, suspended by muscles; finishes the focusing process begun by the cornea
  70. visual accommodation
    the change in thickness of the lens as the eye focuses on objects that are far or close away
  71. vitreous humour
    jelly-like fluid called that also nourishes the eye and gives it the shape
  72. retina
    • contains 3 layers:
    • ganglion cells, bipolar cells
  73. rods
    noncolour activity
  74. cones
    colour vision and sharpness of vision
  75. trichromatic theory
    proposes three types of cones
  76. opponent-process theory
    proposes four primary colours with cones arranged in pairs
  77. monochrome colourblindness
    have no cones or have non working cones
  78. reg-green colourblindness
    either red or green cones not working
  79. wavelength
    frequency or pitch (high medium or low
  80. amplitude
    volume
  81. purity
    timbre (richness of sound)
  82. hertz (Hz)
    waves per second, frequency
  83. auditory canal
    short tunnel that runs from pinna to eardrum
  84. eardrum
    covers opening to middle ear
  85. cochlea
    snail shaped structure of inner ear that is filled with fluid
  86. organ of coti
    rests in the basilar membrane contains receptors for hearing
  87. auditory nerve
    bundle of axons frome hair cells in inner ear; recieves neural message from organ of corti
  88. conduction hearing impairment
    damage in conduction to nerves
  89. nerve hearing damage
    • damage in inner ear
    • damage in auditory pathways
  90. gustation
    sense of taste
  91. five tastes
    • sweet
    • sour
    • salty
    • bitter
    • "brothy"
  92. olfaction
    sense of smell
  93. olfactory bulbs
    areas of brain that recieve information from olfactory receptor cells
  94. somesthetic senses
    body senses consiting of skin sense, kinesthetic sense, and vestibular senses
  95. skin senses
    touch, pressure, tempurature and pain
  96. vestibular senses
    sensation of movement, balance, and body position
  97. preception
    how sensations are experianced
  98. contancys
    size shape and brightness stay the same
  99. figure ground
    tendency to perceive objects or figures as existing on a background
  100. similarity
    tendancy to precieve like things as part of same group
  101. closure
    tendancy to complete figures that are incomplete
  102. continuity
    precieve things in patterns
  103. depth precetion
    3d precieving
  104. monocular cues
    one eye
  105. binocular cues
    both eyes
  106. preceptual expectancy
    from normal
  107. consciousness
    a persons awareness of everything thats going on around him/her at a given moment
  108. waking conciousness
    state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, organized and a person feels alert
  109. alterd state of conciousness
    state when there is a shift in quality or paternn of mental activity compared to waking conciousness
  110. circardian rythm
    a cycle of bodily rythm that occurs over a 24 hour period
  111. hypothalamus
    section of the brain that influences the glandular system
  112. suprachiasmatic nucleus
    internal clock for wake cycle
  113. seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
    shorter days make mind more depression prone
  114. adaptive theory
    proposing animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when they are most active
  115. restorative theory
    proposing sleep is necessary to physical health of body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cell damage
  116. average sleep amount
    less as age, 6-12
  117. sleep stages
    • REM
    • NREM:
    • stage one light
    • stage 2 sleep spindles( breif busts of activity)
    • 3 and 4 pronounced delta waves
  118. REM rebound
    increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM on earlier nights
  119. REM behaviour disorder
    when the mechanism that blocks the movement of volentary muscles fails
  120. sleepwalking
    occures during deep sleep
  121. night terrors
    rare disorder in which a person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during sleep
  122. nightmares
    bad dreams during REM
  123. Insomnia
    inability to get a good quality of sleep
  124. sleep apnea
    disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a min or more
  125. narcolepsy
    sleep disorder in which a person falls immediatly into REM during the day without warning
  126. Manifest content
    actual dream
  127. latent content
    true hidden meaning of a dream
  128. activation synthesis hypothesis
    states that dreams are created by higher cortex centers to explain activation by brain stem corticle cells during REM periods
  129. activation information mode model (AIM)
    information durning waking hours can have influence in dreams
  130. hypnoses as dissociation
    hypnosis only in a persons immediate consciousness while a hidden observer remained aware of all
  131. social cognitive theory of hypnosis
    people do what they think normally hypnotised people do
  132. physical dependence
    • tolerance: more needed to have same effect
    • withdrawal: physical symptoms from not having it
  133. psychological dependence
    mind needs it
  134. stimulants
    • increase nervous system function
    • amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine
  135. depressants
    • decrease nervous system functioning
    • barbituates, benzodiazepines, alcohol
  136. Narcotics
    • opium related drugs that supress pain
    • opium, morphine, heroin
  137. hallucinogens
    • produce hallucinations or increased relaxation and intoxication
    • LSD, PCP, MDMA, Mescaline, Psilocybin, marijuana

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