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Early European Immigration- "First Wave"
- A. Most immigrants during this time period came from an overcrowded Europe.
- 1. Largely Irish and German-8.8 million from 1830-1900
- 2. Significantly affected the U.S political acene in the mid to the late 19th century
Urbanization- The rapid growth of urban areas
1. Resulted in problems such as slums, inadequate policing, crime, transportation issues, impure water, sewage problems, and improper garbage disposal
Nativism- Favoritism towards "native born" Americans
1. Led to massive discrimination againt immigrants
2. Nativists fought for immigration and naturalization restrictions and laws authorizing the deportation of "unwanted aliens"
3. Frequently led to mass violence between nativists and immigrants
Mechanization of the Economy
A. The beginnings of the Industrial Revolution
1. Started in Briatin around 1750 when investors perfected a series of machines for the mass production of textiles
2. American roots dated back to the British embargo during the War of 1812
3. Made possible in America by the millions of European immigrants flooding into the country during the mid to late 19th century
4. Located predominantly in New England- Dense population, access to seaports for shipping, and rivers for early forms of power to run the mills
1. Considered "Father of the Factory System" in America
2. Fled Europe with the plans for machinery needed for industrialization
1. Invented the cotton gin and the idea of standardized parts which became the basis of modern mass production and assembly line methods
Samuel F. B. Morse
1. Invented the telegraph which led to the use of Morse Code (tapped communication through wired)
Elias Howes/Isaac Singer
1. Invented and perdected the sewing machine which revolutionized the clothing idustry
1. Invented the steel plow that efficiently broke the thick Midwest topsoil
1. Invented the "McCormich Reaper"
2. Mechanical horse drawn plow that allowed one farmer to do the work of 5 or more men
1. Invented the steam engine which would power the steamboats that would revolutionizew trade along the American river systems and Great Lakes
2. Clermont- Early steamboat on the Hudson River owned by Fulton and Robert Livingston
1. Invented the railroad sleeper car which would allow for comfortable cross country travel
2. Sleeper car is an overnight car that can travel long miles
- A. TURNPIKES
- 1. Broad, hard-surfaced roads that contained a barrier of sharp pikes, which were turned aside once you paid your toll.
- 2. Early road was called Turnpikes, it was private, and you paid to use it.
- B. STEAMBOATS 1. Over 1,000+ steamboats were in operateion of 1860 for trading and leisure purposes
- 2. Also played a vital role in opening up the South and West which had abundant navigable rivers
- C. CANALS 1. Man made ditches cut to link rivers with other larger bodies of water
- 2. ERIE CANAL- 362 miles through New York connecting Lake Erie and the Freat Lakes to the Hudson River and Atlantic Ocean
- D. RAILROAD 1. First railroad appeared in 1828; by 1860 the U.S possessed 30,000 miles of trach (3/4 of which was in the north)
- 2. Factorys were in the North, that's why 75 miles of track were in the North.
- 3.Tracks were originally constructed out of iron, later would be replaced by steel which was stronger and more durable
- 4. Iron was replaced with steel because its heavy and it rust.
Effects of Early Industrialization
- 1. Transformation of a subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops into a national network of industry and commerce
- 2. There was an economic link and dependence within the nation
- a. The SOUTH raised cotton(King Cotton) for export to New England and Great Britain
- b. The WEST grew grain and livestock to feed factory workers in the east and in Europe
- c. The EAST made machines and textiles for the South and the West
- 1. The gap between rich and poor widened drastically during this time period
- 2. Cities had the greatest levels of economic inequality
- 2. Social mobility and "rags to riches" success was very rare
Poor treatment of workers
- 1. Constantly faced long hours, extremely low wages, and unsanitary and unsafe working conditions
- 2. Labor unions were forbidden during this early industrial era, and achieved only limited success in labor issues at the end of the century.
- a. Most strikes were won by the factory owners with the help of the government and with the use of "scabs"(replacements workers)
- 3. Exploitation of child labor was widespread which would lead to severe physical, mental, and emotional disorders
1. "FACTORY GIRLS" -
generally worked 6 days a week 12-13 hour shifts
- 2. "CULT OF DOMESTICITY" - Widespread belief that glorified the customary functions of the female homemaker
- a. Seens as the moral teachers of children and society
- b. Shaped the character of the family and home
- 3. Smaller families emerged on average during the 19th centruy
- a. "DOMESTIC FEMINISM" - Women consciously making assertive family decisions that signified the grwoing power and independence of women
- b.Also women first time making decisions
Postivies of Industrialization
- 1. Improvements in overall standard of living
- 2. Stronger national economy
- 3. Improved transportation
- 4. Increased efficiency and production in the factories and on the farms