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  1. What are 2 ways of sexual reproduction that plants reproduce?
    • 1. Spores
    • 2. Seeds
  2. What are 3 asexual methods of plant propagation?
    • 1. Cuttings from leaves/stems
    • 2. Corm/ bulb splitting
    • 3. Tissue culturing
  3. "Sporophyte is large and long lived, but when young, depends on gametophyte for nutrition"
  4. Describe cuttings.
    Parts of a plant (stem,leaves) may be cut from adult plant and forced to root and develop into new plant.
  5. What is a corm?
    A corm is a swollen stem base.

    Example: Gladiolus and Taro
  6. What is a bulb?
    A bulb is a swollen leaf base/s or swollen leaves

    Example: Onions and Garlic, and Lillies and Tulips
  7. What is a tissue culture?
    Cells from an adult plant may be forced to grow into undifferentiated callus. The callus may then be stimulated to form roots and shoots to grow into an adult plant.
  8. What is a fruit?
    A fruit is a ripened ovary, and contains the seed
  9. What is a seed?
    A seed is a fertilized ovule, it contains the embryo.
  10. What are the 2 types of seeds?
    1. Albuminous: endosperm is abundant. (corn)

    2. Exalbuminous: endosperm is sparse or absent. (pea)
  11. A seed is composed of 4 things, what are they?
    • 1. Seed Coat
    • 2. Embryo
    • 3. Cotyledons
    • 4. Endosperm
  12. What makes up the pericarp?
    • 1. Endocarp
    • 2. Mesocarp
    • 3. Excocarp
  13. Dicot and Monocot Seed Structure
    Image Upload
  14. Explain Seed Germination.
    Seed germination is the growth of an embryo into a plant. Germination requires water, oxygen, and optimum temperature.
  15. What is tetrazolium chloride used for?
    TZ is a compound that forms a red compound (Formazon) when reduced. When living cells are exposed to TZ, they turn red. When dead cells are exposed they do not turn anything.
  16. Plant Cell Observation: Onion Epidermal Cells
  17. Plant Cell Observation: Potato Parenchyma Cels
  18. Plant Cell Observation: Elodea Cells: cell wall, cytoplasm, vacuole, nucleus, chloropast, cytoplasmic streaming
  19. Plant Cell Observation: Tomato Cells (cell wall, cytoplasm, chromoplasts)
  20. Tissue Types: Parenchyma
    Contain large vacuoles for storage. Chlorenchyma when chloroplasts are present.

    -- Succulent Leaf
  21. Tissue Types: Collenchyma
    Supportive tissue with localized thickenings of the cell wall. Underneath the epidermis. Living at maturity.

    -- Cucumber
  22. Tissue Types: Schlerenchyma
    Supportive tissue with extremely thick cell walls. Dead at maturity.

    • -pyrus (schlerids)
    • -zea (vessels)
    • -cucumber
  23. What are some things that can be found on the epidermis?
    • 1. Guard Cells (zebrina)
    • 2. Trichomes (geranium)
    • 3. Secretory Cells (swedish ivy)
    • 4. Cork Cambium (tilia)- lateral meristem
  24. What are the 2 types of vascular tissues?
    • 1. xylem
    • 2. phloem
  25. What does xylem do?
    Transports water from roots to the rest of the plant.

    Vessel Elements (lignified, dead)
  26. What does phloem do?
    Transports sugars from leaves to rest of plant.

    • -sieve tube members (living cells joined)
    • -companion cells
  27. What are roots, and what is their function?
    Roots are the underground portion of the plant. Their function is anchorage, water absorption and minerals, synthesis of some plant hormones, stores food.
  28. Where are taproots found?
    Dicots, Gymnosperms
  29. Where can fibrous roots be found?
  30. Growth of plant parts takes place for an indefinite amount of time. How is this possible?
    The apical meristem. Meristematic cells continuall divide, enlarge and differentiate.
  31. What is a deep root system?
    Found in habitats with moderate raindall and seasonal drought.

    --Southen pine, eucalyptus, junipers
  32. What are shallow root systems?
    Found in habitats with abundant water or in habitats with very little rainfall.

    -- oak, beech
  33. Root Structure Diagram
    Image Upload
  34. What does the root cap do?
    Covers the apical meristem, and protects the meristem from damage.
  35. What is the apical meristem?
    Its function is new cell formation.
  36. What do root hairs do?
    Anchorage and increases surface area for absorption.
  37. What is the protoderm?
    The protoderm is the outermost layer of cells across the top of the apical meristem. Some cell continue to divide here and some will develop into the epidermis and root hairs.
  38. What is the procambium?
    The procambium is a long, narrow cells of a meristem, they continue to divide. Some of their progeny cells will develop into vascular tissues.
  39. What is ground meristem?
    Ground meristem is uniform parenchyma above the apical meristem and it produces ground tissue.
  40. Dicot Root Cross Section
    Image Upload
  41. Monocot Root Cross Section
    Image Upload
  42. Dicot Root:

    1. Cortex?
    2. Endodermis?
    3. Vascular Cylinder
    4. Epidermis
    • 1. Cortex: parenchyma cells loosely packed together, intercellular spaces store starch and other materials.
    • 2. Endodermis: selective absorption of minerals from cortex into vascular cylinder. (Casparian Strip- special chemical deposit in the endodermis)
    • 3. Vascular Cylinder:
    • -pericycle: outermost layer
    • -xylem: solid core in center
    • -phloem: between the arms of the xylem and extending outward
    • 4. Epidermis: curin, hairs
  43. What are xerophytes?
    • Xerophytes are plants that are adapted to living in arig regions.
    • -thick cuticle
    • -multiple layers of epidermal cells
    • -sunken stoma
    • -spongy parenchyma may have water stored in intercellular spaces
    • -stoma located on lower surface of the leaf
  44. What are mesophytes?
    Plants that grow in regions with moderate amounts of rainfall. Stoma is located on both upper and lower side of leaf, more on the lower side.
  45. What are hydrophytes?
    • Plants partially submerged in water
    • -thin cuticle
    • -stoma located on upper surface of leaf
    • -poorly developed xylem tissue
    • -spongy intercelular spaces contain air
  46. Mesophyte Leaf Image
    Image Upload
  47. Xerophyte Leaf Image
    Image Upload
  48. Hydrophytic Leaf Image
    Image Upload
  49. What are the primary nutrients?
    • 1. Nitrogen
    • 2. Phosphorus
    • 3. Potassium
  50. What are the secondary nutrients?
    • 1. Calcium
    • 2. Magnesium
    • 3. Sulfur
  51. What are some essential elements?
    • 1. Boron
    • 2. Copper
    • 3. Iron
    • 4. Chloride
    • 5. Manganese
    • 6. Zinc
  52. What is chlorosis?
    The loss of green color, caused by loss of chloroplasts and pigment molecules from lack of light or nutrients.
  53. Which nutrients are mobile?
    N, P, Mg, Fe, K
  54. What are some immobile nutrients?
    Ca, B, Mn
  55. What are some characteristics of nitrogen defficiency?
    • 1. Plant is a light green
    • 2. Lower leaves are yellow
    • 3. Drying to light brown color
    • 4. Stalks short and slender if elemenet is deficient in later stages of growth
  56. What are some characteristics of phosphorous deficiency?
    • 1. Plant dark green (often developing red and purple colors)
    • 2. Lower leaves sometimes yellow
    • 3. Drying to greenish brown or black color
    • 4. Stalks short and slender if element is deficient in later stages of growth
  57. What are some characteristics of calcium deficiency?
    • 1. young leave of terminal bud at first typically hooked
    • 2. finally dying back at tips and margins, so that later growth is characterized by a cut-out appearance at these points
    • 3. stalk finally dies at terminal bud
  58. Complete life cycle in one growing season
  59. Require 2 growing seasons to complete life cycle. The first season is vegetative growth, the second is flowers and fruits.
  60. Plants that persist and produce reproductive structures year after year
  61. Is stem growth indeterminate?
  62. What does vascular cambium produce?
    Secondary xylem and secondary phloem
  63. What are tubers?
    Tubers are the tips of rhizomes that become enlarged with the storage of food.

    Image Upload
  64. What are corms?
    Stem that superficially resemble bulbs, but consist of mostly stem tissue. Leaves are similar and thinner than those of bulbs.
  65. What are stolons?
    Creeping stems that grow horizontally on soil surface.
  66. What are bulbs?
    Large buds, each consisting of a small stem and numerous fleshy storage leaves.

    Example: onion bulb
  67. What are the 3 classifications of fruits?
    • 1. Simple- single carpel or several fused carpels
    • 2. Aggregate- single flower many pistils
    • 3. Multiple- many flowers
  68. What is a drupe?
    A drupe is a fleshy fruit in which the pericarp retains water. The endocarp is lignified (pit).
  69. What is a berry?
    Fleshy fruit, percarp retains water. Fleshy endocarp.
  70. What is a pome?
    Papery endocarp
  71. Legume
    Dry fruit. Splits in two seams; one carpel. Dry pericarp
  72. Follicle
    Dry fruit. Splits in one seam; one carpel
  73. Capsule
    Dry fruit. Variable number of splits; several carpels
  74. Achene
    Pericarp stays in tact. Seed not fused to pericarp
  75. Grain
    Pericarp stays in tact. Seed fused to pericarp.
  76. Samara
    Pericarp stays in tact. Winged pericarp
Card Set:
2011-11-06 19:04:09

Botany Lab Review
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