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What are 2 ways of sexual reproduction that plants reproduce?
What are 3 asexual methods of plant propagation?
- 1. Cuttings from leaves/stems
- 2. Corm/ bulb splitting
- 3. Tissue culturing
"Sporophyte is large and long lived, but when young, depends on gametophyte for nutrition"
Parts of a plant (stem,leaves) may be cut from adult plant and forced to root and develop into new plant.
What is a corm?
A corm is a swollen stem base.
Example: Gladiolus and Taro
What is a bulb?
A bulb is a swollen leaf base/s or swollen leaves
Example: Onions and Garlic, and Lillies and Tulips
What is a tissue culture?
Cells from an adult plant may be forced to grow into undifferentiated callus. The callus may then be stimulated to form roots and shoots to grow into an adult plant.
What is a fruit?
A fruit is a ripened ovary, and contains the seed
What is a seed?
A seed is a fertilized ovule, it contains the embryo.
What are the 2 types of seeds?
1. Albuminous: endosperm is abundant. (corn)
2. Exalbuminous: endosperm is sparse or absent. (pea)
A seed is composed of 4 things, what are they?
- 1. Seed Coat
- 2. Embryo
- 3. Cotyledons
- 4. Endosperm
What makes up the pericarp?
- 1. Endocarp
- 2. Mesocarp
- 3. Excocarp
Dicot and Monocot Seed Structure
Explain Seed Germination.
Seed germination is the growth of an embryo into a plant. Germination requires water, oxygen, and optimum temperature.
What is tetrazolium chloride used for?
TZ is a compound that forms a red compound (Formazon) when reduced. When living cells are exposed to TZ, they turn red. When dead cells are exposed they do not turn anything.
Plant Cell Observation: Onion Epidermal Cells
Plant Cell Observation: Potato Parenchyma Cels
Plant Cell Observation: Elodea Cells: cell wall, cytoplasm, vacuole, nucleus, chloropast, cytoplasmic streaming
Plant Cell Observation: Tomato Cells (cell wall, cytoplasm, chromoplasts)
Tissue Types: Parenchyma
Contain large vacuoles for storage. Chlorenchyma when chloroplasts are present.
-- Succulent Leaf
Tissue Types: Collenchyma
Supportive tissue with localized thickenings of the cell wall. Underneath the epidermis. Living at maturity.
Tissue Types: Schlerenchyma
Supportive tissue with extremely thick cell walls. Dead at maturity.
- -pyrus (schlerids)
- -zea (vessels)
What are some things that can be found on the epidermis?
- 1. Guard Cells (zebrina)
- 2. Trichomes (geranium)
- 3. Secretory Cells (swedish ivy)
- 4. Cork Cambium (tilia)- lateral meristem
What are the 2 types of vascular tissues?
What does xylem do?
Transports water from roots to the rest of the plant.
Vessel Elements (lignified, dead)
What does phloem do?
Transports sugars from leaves to rest of plant.
- -sieve tube members (living cells joined)
- -companion cells
What are roots, and what is their function?
Roots are the underground portion of the plant. Their function is anchorage, water absorption and minerals, synthesis of some plant hormones, stores food.
Where are taproots found?
Where can fibrous roots be found?
Growth of plant parts takes place for an indefinite amount of time. How is this possible?
The apical meristem. Meristematic cells continuall divide, enlarge and differentiate.
What is a deep root system?
Found in habitats with moderate raindall and seasonal drought.
--Southen pine, eucalyptus, junipers
What are shallow root systems?
Found in habitats with abundant water or in habitats with very little rainfall.
-- oak, beech
What does the root cap do?
Covers the apical meristem, and protects the meristem from damage.
What is the apical meristem?
Its function is new cell formation.
What do root hairs do?
Anchorage and increases surface area for absorption.
What is the protoderm?
The protoderm is the outermost layer of cells across the top of the apical meristem. Some cell continue to divide here and some will develop into the epidermis and root hairs.
What is the procambium?
The procambium is a long, narrow cells of a meristem, they continue to divide. Some of their progeny cells will develop into vascular tissues.
What is ground meristem?
Ground meristem is uniform parenchyma above the apical meristem and it produces ground tissue.
Monocot Root Cross Section
3. Vascular Cylinder
- 1. Cortex: parenchyma cells loosely packed together, intercellular spaces store starch and other materials.
- 2. Endodermis: selective absorption of minerals from cortex into vascular cylinder. (Casparian Strip- special chemical deposit in the endodermis)
- 3. Vascular Cylinder:
- -pericycle: outermost layer
- -xylem: solid core in center
- -phloem: between the arms of the xylem and extending outward
- 4. Epidermis: curin, hairs
What are xerophytes?
- Xerophytes are plants that are adapted to living in arig regions.
- -thick cuticle
- -multiple layers of epidermal cells
- -sunken stoma
- -spongy parenchyma may have water stored in intercellular spaces
- -stoma located on lower surface of the leaf
What are mesophytes?
Plants that grow in regions with moderate amounts of rainfall. Stoma is located on both upper and lower side of leaf, more on the lower side.
What are hydrophytes?
- Plants partially submerged in water
- -thin cuticle
- -stoma located on upper surface of leaf
- -poorly developed xylem tissue
- -spongy intercelular spaces contain air
What are the primary nutrients?
- 1. Nitrogen
- 2. Phosphorus
- 3. Potassium
What are the secondary nutrients?
- 1. Calcium
- 2. Magnesium
- 3. Sulfur
What are some essential elements?
- 1. Boron
- 2. Copper
- 3. Iron
- 4. Chloride
- 5. Manganese
- 6. Zinc
What is chlorosis?
The loss of green color, caused by loss of chloroplasts and pigment molecules from lack of light or nutrients.
Which nutrients are mobile?
N, P, Mg, Fe, K
What are some immobile nutrients?
Ca, B, Mn
What are some characteristics of nitrogen defficiency?
- 1. Plant is a light green
- 2. Lower leaves are yellow
- 3. Drying to light brown color
- 4. Stalks short and slender if elemenet is deficient in later stages of growth
What are some characteristics of phosphorous deficiency?
- 1. Plant dark green (often developing red and purple colors)
- 2. Lower leaves sometimes yellow
- 3. Drying to greenish brown or black color
- 4. Stalks short and slender if element is deficient in later stages of growth
What are some characteristics of calcium deficiency?
- 1. young leave of terminal bud at first typically hooked
- 2. finally dying back at tips and margins, so that later growth is characterized by a cut-out appearance at these points
- 3. stalk finally dies at terminal bud
Complete life cycle in one growing season
Require 2 growing seasons to complete life cycle. The first season is vegetative growth, the second is flowers and fruits.
Plants that persist and produce reproductive structures year after year
Is stem growth indeterminate?
What does vascular cambium produce?
Secondary xylem and secondary phloem
What are tubers?
Tubers are the tips of rhizomes that become enlarged with the storage of food.
What are corms?
Stem that superficially resemble bulbs, but consist of mostly stem tissue. Leaves are similar and thinner than those of bulbs.
What are stolons?
Creeping stems that grow horizontally on soil surface.
What are bulbs?
Large buds, each consisting of a small stem and numerous fleshy storage leaves.
Example: onion bulb
What are the 3 classifications of fruits?
- 1. Simple- single carpel or several fused carpels
- 2. Aggregate- single flower many pistils
- 3. Multiple- many flowers
What is a drupe?
A drupe is a fleshy fruit in which the pericarp retains water. The endocarp is lignified (pit).
What is a berry?
Fleshy fruit, percarp retains water. Fleshy endocarp.
What is a pome?
Dry fruit. Splits in two seams; one carpel. Dry pericarp
Dry fruit. Splits in one seam; one carpel
Dry fruit. Variable number of splits; several carpels
Pericarp stays in tact. Seed not fused to pericarp
Pericarp stays in tact. Seed fused to pericarp.
Pericarp stays in tact. Winged pericarp