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Explain the meaning of Horace's statement:
"Captive Greece took captive her rude conqueror."
- Horace in this statement is referring to 2 conquests.
- 1 is a usual conquest; one country conquered another or military conquest. 2 is a cultural conquest
- "captive greece" and "her RUDE conqueror". Rome is the rude conqueror.
- rude as Horace uses it means uncivilized. Horace was Roman too. Describing his own city as uncivilized. Horace is emphasizing rome's cultural inferiority or almost no culture at all
- the 2nd conquest is cultural.
What the selections in SWT by Cicero and
Cato the Elder reveal about Roman attitudes towards
- Cato the Elder: Felt Greek philosophy threatened traditional Roman Values. He felt that Socrates undermined respect for Athenian law and that Greek philosophy would lure Roman youth into subversive behavior.
- Cicero: He adopted the Greek stoic belief that natural law governs the universie and applies to all and that all belong to a common humanity. He thought the laws of the state should agree with natural law to create a moral bond among citizens.
The story of Scipio Aemilianus at Carthage
and how it illustrates the classical view of history
He was watching Carthage burn and he quoted from the Illiad what the character said while Troy was burning. It illustrates that Scipio recognized the cycle of the rise and fall of empires because he wept for Rome since he knew it would fall eventually too.
What the West inherited from Rome: Perry's list of the five most important Roman legacies
- 1. The idea of a world empire
- 2. The preservation of the culture of ancient Greece
- 3. The Latin language
- 4. Roman Law
Reasons given by Hans Kung for his claim that "without Judaism there would be no Christianity." (Answer should include at least 5 specific points from the passage by Kung in WCBH)
- 1. Jesus was a Jew. His name Yeshu'a is jewish
- 2. His disciples were Jews. The first christians were jews who believed Jesus was the Messiah
- 3. He was a rabbi.
- 4. The bible of early Christians was the Jewish old testament
- 5. jesus follwed jewish law
The 4 principal sects within 1st-century Judaism and the distinguishing characteristics of each
- Sadducees: interpreted the Torah literally, reject concepts of resurrection and afterlife
- Pharisees: more flexible & allowed different interpretations of Mosaic Law. origin of all later forms of judaism
- Essenes: semimonastic community; had dead sea scrolls
- Zealots: patriots, acts of resistance to Rome, demanded jews neither pay taxes nor admit authority of emperor
What Luke 4:16-2l reveals about the nature, meaning, and appeal of Jesus' ministry
- Jesus practices Jewish law
- Jesus is a rabbi
- He is the Messiah
- His ministry appeals to the poor, captives, blind, and opressed.
How Galatians 3:26-28 shows the Christian community envisioned by Paul to be an oikoumene
- Oikoumene is the whole inhabited earth. Paul saw the Christian community as a united church.
- Galations "There is neither jew nor greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus". These catagories represent the inhabited world and they are all one in Christ.
Summary of the Roman historian Tacitus' account of Nero's persecution of early Christians and what it reveals about Roman attitudes towards Christians
- Tasitus is a pagan Roman and doesn't like Christians.
- Nero is persecuting Christians to deflect the blame from him for starting the fire in Rome
- Tacitus says despite their guilt as Christians and the ruthless punishment it deserved, he felt bad for them because they were being sacrificed to 1 man's brutality rather than the national interest.
What Christianity had in common with the official Roman imperial cult and with ancient mystery religions such as the cult of Mithras; how this helps explain the spread of Christianity
- similar language. Kingdom of God, sons of God, etc. Caesar was called Lord.
- Cult of Mithras: birthday of god dec 25th. Baptism, blood as a symbol, communal meal. Idea of eternal life, must uphold high standard of ethics.
- Christians offering alternative to empirical theology & cults that were accepted because sort of familiar.
How the edicts of Constantine and Theodosius changed the status of Christianity and other religions in the Roman Empire; how this came to show the dark side of monotheism
- Edict of Milan issued by Constantine granted the toleration of all religion including Christianity so the persecution of Christians ended.
- Theodosius made Orthodox Christianity the official state religion of rome and banned paganism & other religions. Shows dark side of monotheism because instead of christians being persecuted it is now non-christians & unorthodox christians.
Explain the meaning of Tertullian's question, "What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem?" Compare his answer to the view of Clement of Alexandria. Which view ultimately prevailed?
- conflict between faith and reason
- It is a metaphor. What has Greco-Roman culture (Athens) to do with Christianity (Jerusalem).
- Tertullian argues that Christians should stay away from greek philosophy because it will lead them into heresy and false doctrine.
- Clement believed that philosophy and christianity could work together. Philosophy is a clear image of the truth. The way of truth is one. Clements view prevails a 1000 years later. Idea that philosophy enriches Christianity.
What prompted Augustine to write The City of God Explain the title of the book
- The first sacs of Rome by the visigoths prompted him to write it. It was kind of like 9/11 for us. Romans believed their city was eternal so it was a shock
- Pagans began to say that the city lasted when the romans were pagan but now that they're christian its made gods mad and causes this problem
- Augustine writes city of god to refute that claim. the full title is city of god against the pagan. He argues that there are 2 cities. 1 worldly earthy city and 1 heavenly city. Citizenship is not in the worldy city but the heavenly one.
- Gives Christians a different view of the fall of rome.
List the three civilizations that emerged from the ruins of the Roman Empire and describe the geographical setting of each. In the early Middle Ages, which was the "poor relation" and why?
- 1. Byzantium: eastern half of the roman empire, the captial is constantinople.
- 2. Islam: the middle east and north africa.
- 3. Latin Christiandom: western half of the roman empire.
- Latin Christiandom was the "poor relation" because the barbaric germans had controlled it & couldnt maintain the organized administration
Summarize Theophylact Simocattes and Avicenna (SWT), noting how each reflects the continuing influence of the Greek intellectual tradition in the civilizations of the medieval East.
- Theophylact relfects the influence of Greek philosophy. He loves history and deems it "the common teacher of all men". He quotes Homer.
- Avincenna testifies to the continued importance of Greek philosophy in Muslim civiliation. He talks about how much he loves to learn and quotes Aristotle.
"During the Middle Ages, a common European civilization evolved, integrating three traditions" (Perry). List the
three traditions and give a key contribution of each
- 1. Greco-Roman Tradition: Latin, Roman Law, Greek and Latin learning
- 2. Christian Tradition: Roman Catholic church, the papacy, Monasticism
3. Germanic Tradition: Germanic (vernacular) languages, customary law
Explain how Boethius, Cassiodorus, and
many anonymous monks helped preserve classical learning in the West during the
Early Middle Ages.
- classical learning almost dissapears in the west because of barbaric invasions
- Boethius translated some of the writings of Aristotle from Greek to Latin, inclding Aristotles writings on logic. also wrote commentarys on Aristotle and Cicero
- Cassiodorus understood the importance of preserveing ancient texts so he began the practice of copying ancient manuscripts
Describe the alliance between the Franks and the papacy that developed in the 8th century by noting what each side
did for the other between A.D. 750 and 800.
- Franks embraced the Roman form of Christianity and helped the church defend the papacy from Germans etc who adopted the Arian form of Christianity.
- Franks helped defeat the muslims
- Charlemagne took on the responsibility of spreading and defending the faith. Roman universalism was fused with Christian universalism.
Explain how both the Carolingian Empire and the Carolingian Renaissance helped preserve the Greco-Roman heritage: make reference to documents on Carolingian Renaissance (SWT).
- Carolingian Empire was ruled by Charlamagne who was Germanic. He was crowned Emperor of the Romans by the leader of the Christian church.
- During the Carolingian Renaissance he promotes classical (greek) learning in the Christian monastic schools of his kingdom.
- Charlamagne writes a letter to the Abbot talking about how he wants to use monastic schools to train clergymen in grammar writing and rhetoric.
Define feudalism and explain how it worked using and defining the terms lord, fief, and vassal.
- Feudalism was a political arrangement that consisted of a set of legal and military customs.
- A vassal was a knight who pledged loyalty to a lord. Vassals provided military service
- Fiefs were a piece of land. A vassal would get a fief to grow crops to support him
- Lords were people who owned lots of land and resided over vassals.
Define manorialism and explain how it worked using and defining the terms lord, manor, and serf.
- Manorialism was the economic foundation of feudalism. A village community (manor) was the basis of the agricultural society.
- Lords controlled the manorial village that usually consisted of a dozen families. They defended it and administered law.
- Serfs worked on the manor in exchange for living there under the lord's protection. Eventually they were able to earn their freedom.
Describe the three ranks of the early medieval social order, note the function of each, and explain the forces that undermined that order during the High Middle Ages.
- Clergy: In charge of the church etc
- Lords: provided protection and military force
- Serfs: worked the land and agricultural part
- Economic changes allowed a middle class to emerge. this was because of serfs being freed and becomming peddlers, increased economic activity that led to new business techniques like currency conversion and pooling of capital.
Summarize Pope Urban II's speech to the Franks at Clermont in 1095 as reported by Robert the Monk SWT. What does it reveal about the motives for the Crusades?
- Pope Urban basically said that sacred Jerusalem was held captive by Muslims, enemies of the faith.
- Motives were defending Christian faith and extending authority of papacy
- chance for glory & wealth
- recovery of Christian holy lands
Explain the reasons given by Perry, for the persecutions of Jews in the middle Ages.
- Christians believed Jews killed Christ because they called for his crucifixion
- Saw their refusal to embrace Christianity as an act of wickedness
Define and give an example of heresy, from the Middle Ages (e.g. Arian, Waldensian, Catharist).
- Heresy: beliefs that challenged Christian orthodoxy
- Waldensians: followed Peter Waldo and committed themselves to poverty and preaching the Gospel in the vernacular instead of Latin
- Cathari: Believed in god of good and god of evil. didn't believe Jesus took on human flesh. The church was created by the evil god to pursue power and wealth
Define scholasticism and explain its goal and method with reference to Abelard's Sic et Non.
- Scholasticism: synthesis of Greek philosophy and Christian revelation. Basically the application of reason to revelation
- Goal was to explain that Christian faith had nothing to fear from reason. Christianity is accepted as truth by faith but can also be demonstrated as truth by reason.
- Abelard wrote Yes and No to show that the difference in opinions between the church ministers and what the bible said could be reconciled through reason
Describe the impact of the rediscovery of Aristotle on the West during the High Middle Ages, noting how, it was both exciting and troubling to European intellectuals
- Impact of rediscovering Aristotle was the intellectual awakening. It created universities where philosophy was used to advance theology.
- Exciting because Aristotle provided for christians a way to better understand and even prove the things that christians already professed to believe on faith. Gives Christians the tool of logic
- troubling because he was NOT a christian and in his writings there were some ideas very theatening to medieval Christians.
Show how Thomas Aquinas attempted to prove
the existence of God in his Summa Theologica
(SWT) noting the sources of his proof.
- His first proof was the argument from motion. He says things get moved by other things but how did it start? There had to be a "first mover" who is apparently God.
- His source for this proof is Aristotle's metaphysics.
Define vernacular and give an example from
medieval literature, noting author, title, subject and language.
- Vernacular: common language/native tongue
- Dante, The Divine Comedy, written in Italian. Tells the story of Virgil who goes through the many levels of limbo in hell.