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List the layers of the alimentary canal in order
- 1. mucosa
- 2. submucosa
- 3. muscularis externa
- 4. serosa
Identify organ locations within quadrants and /or relative to other structures
- 1. stomach--> ULQ next to diaphragm
- 2. pancreas-->retroperitoneal-->inferior & posterior to stomach
- 3. liver--> URQ next to diaphragm
- 4. gallbladder--> inferior to liver
List and define processes that aid movement through the alimentary canal.
- deglutition= swallowing
- peristalsis--> progressive wave of contraction in the alimentary canal
Define mechanical digestion
List and define the process that contributes to mechanical digestion
- 1. mastication= chewing
- 2. churning= tumbling
- 3. segmentation=isolated contractions
List substances that aid in chemical digestion
- 1. HCI
- 2. bile salts
- 3. enzymes
What is the pH of saliva when it flows & what accounts for it?
pH of saliva is alkaline because of bicarbonate
Where is the location of the gastroesophageal sphincter?
Where is the location of the pyloric sphincter?
What is the hormone of stomach & it's function
gastrin & it stimulates acid and pepsin secretion
What are the exocrine secretions of the stomach & their functions?
- 1. mucus
- 2. intrinsic factor
- 3. hydrochloric acid-->activates pepsin
- 4. pepsin--> starts protein digestion -->breaks down to polypeptides
What are the exocrine secretions of the pancreas & their functions?
- 1. sodium bicarbonate-->neutralizes acid
- 2. amylase--> carbohydrate digestion
- 3. lipase--> fat digestion
- 4. polypeptidase--> protein digestion
Where do the exocrine scretions of the pancreas act?
Functions of the liver?
- 1. protein metabolism
- 2. carbohydrate metabolism
- 3. lipid metabolism
- 4. ketone body syntheis
- 5. hormone metabolism
- 6. resistance
- 7. blood reservoir
- 8. vitamin & mineral storage
- 9. bile secretion
a.What are the substances found in bile?
b.What are their functions or fate?
- a.1. bilirubin-------->b.excreted
- 2. cholesterol----->b.excreted
- 3. bile salts------->b.fat digestion & fat absorption
Retention of what substance accounts for jaundice?
What is the functional cell type of the liver?
What % loss of functional liver cells disrupts homeostasis?
List blood vessels that supply the liver & their oxygen & nutrient contents.
- hepatic artery--> oxygen rich
- portal vein:---> nurtrient rich
What part of small intestine receives enzymes & bicarbonate from pancreas as well as bile from the liver or gallbladder?
What is the function of the gallbaldder?
Parts of the small intestine from proximal to distal are:
duodenum--> jejunum--> ileum
What is the function of the villi and microvilli?
increase surface area for absorption
What are the hormones produced by the small intestine and what are their functions?
- secretin--> stimulates bicarbonate
- cholecystokinin--> stimulates enzyme secretion by pancreas and gall bladder contraction
What organ is the major site of digestion and absorption?
What are the final products from digestion of protein and carbohydrates in the small intestine?
- protein=amino acids
Where are proteins absorbed for transport?
Where are carbohydrates absorbed for transport?
- large pieces of fat made into smaller pieces
- globules to droplets
Where does emulsification occur & what substance promotes it?
emulsification occurs in the liver & bile salts promote it
What lipoprotein is triglyceride incorporated into after it's digested and absorbed into the small intestinal cells?
Fat is absorbed into what for transport?
Parts of large intestine from poximal to distal
- ascending colon
- transverse colon
- descending colon
What are the functions of the large intestines?
- 1. asorption
- 2. fecal consistency
- 3. the gas we pass
The Gas We Pass by Shinata Cho points out most gas is the result of what?
The Gas We Pass by Shinata Cho also points out that intestinal trauma or surgery has what effect on the intestines?
causes it to shut down
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