Digestive System

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Digestive System
2011-11-05 16:28:40
Digestive System

Digestive System
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  1. List the layers of the alimentary canal in order
    • 1. mucosa
    • 2. submucosa
    • 3. muscularis externa
    • 4. serosa
  2. Identify organ locations within quadrants and /or relative to other structures
    • 1. stomach--> ULQ next to diaphragm
    • 2. pancreas-->retroperitoneal-->inferior & posterior to stomach
    • 3. liver--> URQ next to diaphragm
    • 4. gallbladder--> inferior to liver
  3. List and define processes that aid movement through the alimentary canal.
    • deglutition= swallowing
    • peristalsis--> progressive wave of contraction in the alimentary canal
  4. Define mechanical digestion
    physical breakdown
  5. List and define the process that contributes to mechanical digestion
    • 1. mastication= chewing
    • 2. churning= tumbling
    • 3. segmentation=isolated contractions
  6. List substances that aid in chemical digestion
    • 1. HCI
    • 2. bile salts
    • 3. enzymes
  7. What is the pH of saliva when it flows & what accounts for it?
    pH of saliva is alkaline because of bicarbonate
  8. Where is the location of the gastroesophageal sphincter?
    oral cavity
  9. Where is the location of the pyloric sphincter?
  10. What is the hormone of stomach & it's function
    gastrin & it stimulates acid and pepsin secretion
  11. What are the exocrine secretions of the stomach & their functions?
    • 1. mucus
    • 2. intrinsic factor
    • 3. hydrochloric acid-->activates pepsin
    • 4. pepsin--> starts protein digestion -->breaks down to polypeptides
  12. What are the exocrine secretions of the pancreas & their functions?
    • 1. sodium bicarbonate-->neutralizes acid
    • 2. amylase--> carbohydrate digestion
    • 3. lipase--> fat digestion
    • 4. polypeptidase--> protein digestion
  13. Where do the exocrine scretions of the pancreas act?
    small intestines
  14. Functions of the liver?
    • 1. protein metabolism
    • 2. carbohydrate metabolism
    • 3. lipid metabolism
    • 4. ketone body syntheis
    • 5. hormone metabolism
    • 6. resistance
    • 7. blood reservoir
    • 8. vitamin & mineral storage
    • 9. bile secretion
  15. a.What are the substances found in bile?
    b.What are their functions or fate?
    • a.1. bilirubin-------->b.excreted
    • 2. cholesterol----->b.excreted
    • 3. bile salts------->b.fat digestion & fat absorption
  16. Retention of what substance accounts for jaundice?
  17. What is the functional cell type of the liver?
  18. What % loss of functional liver cells disrupts homeostasis?
  19. List blood vessels that supply the liver & their oxygen & nutrient contents.
    • hepatic artery--> oxygen rich
    • portal vein:---> nurtrient rich
  20. What part of small intestine receives enzymes & bicarbonate from pancreas as well as bile from the liver or gallbladder?
  21. What is the function of the gallbaldder?
    stores bile
  22. Parts of the small intestine from proximal to distal are:
    duodenum--> jejunum--> ileum
  23. What is the function of the villi and microvilli?
    increase surface area for absorption
  24. What are the hormones produced by the small intestine and what are their functions?
    • secretin--> stimulates bicarbonate
    • cholecystokinin--> stimulates enzyme secretion by pancreas and gall bladder contraction
  25. What organ is the major site of digestion and absorption?
    small intestines
  26. What are the final products from digestion of protein and carbohydrates in the small intestine?
    • protein=amino acids
    • carbohydrates=monossacharides
  27. Where are proteins absorbed for transport?
  28. Where are carbohydrates absorbed for transport?
  29. Define emulsification
    • large pieces of fat made into smaller pieces
    • globules to droplets
  30. Where does emulsification occur & what substance promotes it?
    emulsification occurs in the liver & bile salts promote it
  31. What lipoprotein is triglyceride incorporated into after it's digested and absorbed into the small intestinal cells?
  32. Fat is absorbed into what for transport?
  33. Parts of large intestine from poximal to distal
    • cecum
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid
    • rectum
  34. What are the functions of the large intestines?
    • 1. asorption
    • 2. fecal consistency
    • 3. the gas we pass
  35. The Gas We Pass by Shinata Cho points out most gas is the result of what?
    swallowed air
  36. The Gas We Pass by Shinata Cho also points out that intestinal trauma or surgery has what effect on the intestines?
    causes it to shut down