14.2 brain, spinal cord and related terms

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  1. amygdala
    an almond-shaped mass of gray matter located in the anterior portion of the temporal lobe
  2. analgesia
    insensibility to pain
  3. anesthesia
    loss of feeling in part or in body generally
  4. apathy
    indifference to environment
  5. arachnoid
    middle meningeal membrane resembling spider's web (arachnoid means spider)
  6. ascending tracts
    tracts located in spinal cord, carrying afferent or sensory nerve fibers taht conduct nerve impulses to brain
  7. astrocyte
    star-shaped cell of the neuroglia (astro means star)
  8. basal ganglia
    paired masses of gray matter in each cerebral hemisphere
  9. blood-brain barrier
    an anatomic-phyiolofic feature that alters the permeability of brain capillaries so that some substances are prevented from entering brain tissue while others are allowed to enter freely
  10. brain
    central part of nerve tissue within cranium, including cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
  11. brain stem
    consists of medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain
  12. cataplexy
    rigidity of muscles, with limbs tending to remain where placed; characterized by trancelike state
  13. cerebellar hemispheres
    the two parts, or hemispheres, that comprise the cerebellum
  14. cerebellum
    second largest division of brain, situated above medulla oblongata and beneath rear portion of cerebrum
  15. cerebral cortex
    outer portion of cerebrum containing gray matter; the cell bodies of neurons
  16. cerebrospinal fluid
    thin, transparent, watery fluid found around spinal cord and in ventricles of brain, central canal of spinal cord and subarachnoid spaces; supports brain, serving as a protective cushion and source of nutrients for brain and spinal cord
  17. cerebrum
    larges part of the brain, occupying most of cranial cavity; divided into two cerebral hemispheres
  18. choroid plexus
    vascular folds of pia mater in third, fourth and lateral ventricles; secretes cerebrospinal fluid
  19. cingulate gyrus
    one of the divisions of the limbic system of the brain
  20. circadian rhythm
    regular recurrence of biological activity that occurs at abou the same time each day or night regardless of exposure ot constant darkness or light
  21. cisterna magna
    enlarged subarachnoid space between caudal surface of cerebellum and dorsal surface of medulla oblongata; sample of cerebrospinal fluid may be collected or pressure measured at this site
  22. convolution
    fold in surface of cerebral hemisphere (also called gyrus)
  23. corpus striatum (corpora striata)
    the basal ganglia and the white matter separating them, seen as alternating bands of grey and white matter in each cerebral hemisphere
  24. descending tracts
    tracts located in spinal cord carrying nerve fibers that conduct efferent or motor impulses from brain
  25. diencephalon
    part of forebrain that contains thalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus
  26. disorientation
    stiuation in which animal appears to suffer loss of bearings or state of mental confusion as to time, place or identity
  27. dura mater
    outermost membrane of brain and spinal cord
  28. endorphins
    natural, opiate-like substances produced in both brain and pituitary gland that have narcotic action on receptor sites in brain; believed to play role in pain experience
  29. epithalamus
    portion of diencephalon that includes pineal body and olractory (smell) centers
  30. fissure
    deep groove or furrow of brain on cortical surface of cerebrum
  31. foramen magnum
    passage for spinal cord through occipital bone of cranium
  32. forebrain
    anterior portion of the brain composed of the telencephalon and diencephalon
  33. fourth ventricle
    most posterior ventricle in hindbrain, which produces some cerebrospinal fluid
  34. frontal lobe
    the most anterior lobe of the cerebral cortex, which serves as the center for voluntary movement
  35. gyrus (gyri)
    either lateral half of cerebrum or cerebellum
  36. hindbrain
    also called the rhombencephalon, it is composed of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata
  37. hippocampus
    part of limbic system often called gatekeeper for memory
  38. horns
    projections of gray matter within the spinal cord. In cross sections of the spinal cord there are two horns pointing dorsally and two ventrally
  39. hyperkinesis
    increased motor function or activity
  40. hypnosis
    induced state of altered awareness or trance; immobility state can be produced in various species such as rabbit
  41. hypothalamus
    portion of diencephalon located below and between lobes of thalamus; contains the optic chiasm and part of pituitary gland
  42. lateral ventrical
    cavity in each cerebral hemisphere containing cerebrospinal fluid and communicating with third ventricle
  43. leptomeninges
    pia mater and arachnoid membranes of brain
  44. limbic system
    center for emotional activity and behavior located in deeper structures of brain; involves cingulate gyrus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus
  45. lobes of cerebrum
    cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes named for the cranial bones above them: occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal
  46. medulla oblongata
    posterior part of brain, continuous with spinal cord
  47. meninges
    three membranes enveloping central nervous system; dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
  48. mesencephalon
    one of the three parts of the brainstem, lying just below the cerebrum and just above the pons. Also called the midbrain
  49. microglia
    phagocytic cells of nervous system
  50. midbrain
    located between forebrain and hindbrain; contains auditory, visual and muscle control center and is involved in body posture and equilibrium
  51. neuroglia
    specialized type of nervous tissue that holds nerve cells and their gossamer filaments together
  52. neurotransmitters
    chemical substances that act at synapse to stimulate or inhibit transmission of impulses; most well known are acetylcholine, norepinephrine (adrenaline), dopamine, and serotonin
  53. nucleus
    mass or cluster of gray matter in brain or spinal cord
  54. olfactory brain
    also called the rhinencephalon; it is primarily associated with the sense of smell and is more developed in animals than in humans
  55. oligodendroglia
    cells that aid in holding nerve fibers together and forming myelin sheath of nerves
  56. optic chiasm
    crossing of optic nerves on ventral surface of brain (chiasm means crossing)
  57. pachymeninx (pachymeninges)
    dura mater
  58. pia mater
    innermost, thin, compact membrane closely adapted to surface of spinal cord and brain
  59. pons
    portion of brain that serves as bridge to connect verebellum,cerebrum and medulla oblongata (pons means bridge)
  60. reticular activating system
    a functional (rather than morphologic) system in the brain essential for wakefulness
  61. rhinenecephalon
    the part of the forebrain involved in receiving and integrating olfactory impulses
  62. Schwann cell
    a specialized cell that covers a nerve fiber in the peripheral nervous system, forming the neurilemma
  63. spinal cord
    lowest part of central nervous system, extending form medulla oblongata to coccyx; contains ascending and descending nerve tracts
  64. stress
    bological reactions to any adverse stimulus (physical, mental, emotional, internal or external) that tends to disturb well-being of animal
  65. subarachnoid space
    space between pia mater and arachnoid
  66. subdural space
    space between dura mater and arachnoid
  67. sulcus (sulci)
    furrow or groove separating gyri from each other
  68. telencephalon
    the cerebrum, the corpora striata, and the rhinencephalon
  69. thalamus
    part of diencephalon, known as great integrating center of brain; large, gray, oval mass that acts as center to receive sensory impulses and transmit them on to cerebral cortex
  70. third ventricle
    located in diencephalon; connects to fourth ventricle by way of cerebral aqueduct
  71. ventricles
    four interconnected cavities in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  72. vermis
    central body of cerebellum, has wormlike shape (vermis means worm)
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14.2 brain, spinal cord and related terms
14.2 The Nervous System: Brain, Spinal Cord and related terms
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