14.3 nerve structures and related terms

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14.3 nerve structures and related terms
2011-11-05 17:43:39
vet tech

14.3 nervous system: nerve structures and related terms
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  1. afferent neurons
    neurons that conduct impulses from sense organs to spinal cord and brain
  2. axon
    long nerve cell process carrying impulses from cell body
  3. collaterals
    side branches of axon
  4. connectors
    neurons in which dendrites and axons are connected to other neurons
  5. dendrites
    numerous short nerve cell processes that conduct nerve impulses toward cell body
  6. dorsal root
    part of spinal nerve that enters dorsal portion of spinal cord, carrying afferent impulses from periphery toward spinal cord
  7. efferent neurons
    motor neurons that convey impulses from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
  8. ganglion (ganglia)
    mass of nerve cells located OUTSIDE brain and spinal cord that serves as center for nerve impuses
  9. interneuron neurons
    also called connector neurons, a neuron that transmits impulses from sensory to motor neurons or to other interneurons in the central nervous system
  10. knee jerk reflex
    a spinal reflex initiated by tapping the patellar ligament, causing the leg to extend
  11. motor neurons
    neurons serving muscle or glands
  12. myelinated nerves
    nerves covered with sheath of white fatty material called myelin
  13. myelin sheath
    the insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds a nerve fiber and facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses
  14. nerve
    a bundle of nerve fibers
  15. nerve fibers
    the dendrites and axons of a neuron
  16. nerve trunk
    white, glistening, cordlike bundle formed by nerve fibers bound together by connective tissue
  17. neurilemma
    tubelike membrane covering nerve fibers, which may or may not be myelinated (also neurolemma or sheath of Schwann)
  18. neuron
    single nerve cell with cell body, axon and dendrites; structural unit of nervous system
  19. nociceptive receptor
    receptor for pain
  20. nonmyelinated fibers
    nerve fibers that have only a thin coating of myelin surrounding them
  21. plexus
    interlacing network of spinal nerves in several areas of body
  22. proprioceptive receptors
    any sensory nerve endings tht give information about movements and position of body
  23. pupillary reflex
    constriction of the pupil of the eye in response to light
  24. Ranvier's node
    interruption or constriction in myelin sheath at regular intervals
  25. receptors
    organs of sensation
  26. reflex
    an involuntary response to a stimulus
  27. reflex arc
    the path of a reflex, involving at least two neurons over which impulses are conducted from a receptor to the brain or spinal cord and then to an effector
  28. sensory neurons
    peripheral nerves that conduct afferent impulses from sese organs to spinal cord
  29. soma
    the body of a cell
  30. spinal reflex
    the simplest type of reflex, one whose arc passes through he spinal cord but not the brain
  31. synapse
    microscopic space between axon of one neuron and dendrites of another across which impulse is transmitted (synapse means connection)
  32. terminal twigs
    peripheral nerve endings
  33. tract
    neuronal axons grouped together to form a pathway
  34. ventral root
    part of spinal nerve that emerges from ventral portion of spinal cord, carrying efferent impulses from spinal cord to muscles or organs