14.6 Pathologic conditions of the nervous system

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XQWCat
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14.6 Pathologic conditions of the nervous system
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2011-11-05 18:45:14
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14.6 the nervous system: pathologic conditions
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  1. ataxia
    uscular incoordination
  2. Aujeszky's disease
    disease primarily of pigs caused by a herpes virus; produces neurologic, respiratory and reproductive signs (also called pseudorabies or mad itch)
  3. bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
    a prion disease of cattle, also known as mad cow disease, characterized by degeneration of brain tissue; thought to be transmissible to humans
  4. cerebellar hemorrhage
    bleeding into structure of cerebrum, usually caused by rupture of artery or congenital aneurysm; may be followed by destruction of brain tissue, with ensuing paralysis, sensory losses, and cognitive confusion and losses
  5. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    commonly called a stroke; includes rupture or obstruction of artery of brain, producing severe headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, accompanied by localized and widespread neurologic deterioration
  6. cervical vertebral malformation
    incoordination in dogs and horses associated with caudal cervical vertebral malformation or instability (also called wobblers)
  7. chorea
    repetitive, rhythmic contractons of a group of skeletal muscles; result of encephalitis or myelitis caused by distemper virus in dogs
  8. choriomeningitis
    inflammation of cerebral meninges with infiltration of choroid plexus by lymphocytes
  9. coma
    stuporous condition of depressed responsiveness, with absence of response to strong stimuli
  10. decerebration
    loss of higher mental functions because of bain damage
  11. discospondylitis
    destructive, inflammatory process involing vertebral bodis, seen in dogs and pigs
  12. encephalitis
    inflammation of brain, with variety of types; associated with several viral agents including canine distemper virus
  13. encephalomalacia
    softening of brain tissue caused by reduced blood supply
  14. encephalomyelitis
    inflammation of brain and spinal cord
  15. encephalopathy
    any degenerative disease of brain
  16. epilepsy
    hereditary or idiopathic nervous system disorder, with or without convulsions, which may also result from infection or trauma; characterized by temporary disturbance of brain impulses, with several types: grand mal (loss of consciousness with convusions), petit mal (temporary loss of awareness and suspension of activity) and focal (seizure affects limited body area).
  17. hemiplegia
    paralysis of one side of body
  18. hydrocephalus
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in cerebral ventricles, with thinning of cortex and enlargement of head resulting from separation of cranial bones
  19. intervetebral disc disease
    syndrome of pain and neurologic deficits resulting from displacement of part or all of nucleus of intervertebral disc; seen most often in dogs, particularly in dachshunds and beagles
  20. listeriosis
    infectious disease affecting all species, caused by Listeria monocytogenes; typically produces meningoencephalitis and syndrome of circling, facial paralysis and head pressing
  21. macrocephaly
    excessively large size of head (also called megacephaly)
  22. meningioma
    benign, encapsulated tumor originating in arachnoid
  23. meningitis
    inflammaion of meninges of brain or spinal cord, caused by viral or bacterial infection
  24. meningoencephalitis
    inflammation of brain and meninges; can be caused by feline infectious peritonitis
  25. meningoencephalomyelitis
    inflammation of brain and meninges; can be caused by feline infectious peritonitis
  26. meningoenchephalomyelitis
    inflammation that involves brain, meninges and spinal cord
  27. meningomyelitis
    inflammation of spinal cord and its membranes
  28. microcephaly
    condition of excessively small head
  29. myelitis
    inflammation of spinal cord (myel refers to both spinal cord and bone marrow, and context in which it is used determines which tissue is involved
  30. myelopathy
    any functional disturbance or pathologic change in spinal cord; often used to describe nonspecific lesions
  31. narcolepsy
    uncontrollable urge to sleep or sudden attacks of sleep
  32. neuralgia
    pain in nerve or nerves
  33. neuritis
    inflammation of nerve or nerves, caused by infection, toxicity, or trauma
  34. neuromyopathy
    any disease of muscles and nerves combined
  35. neuromyositis
    neuritis with inflammation of corresponding muscles
  36. neurotoxin
    substance that is poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue
  37. opisthotonos
    tetanic spasm in which head and tail are bend upward and abdomen is bowed downward
  38. paralysis
    loss of muscle function or loss of sensation
  39. paraplegia
    paralysis of posterior part of body and extremities
  40. paresis
    slight or incomplete paralysis
  41. polioencephalomalacia
    softening and necrosis of cerebrocortical gray matter
  42. polioencephalomyelitis
    inflammation of gray matter of brain and spinal cord
  43. polyneuritis
    inflammation of large number of spinal nerves at same time
  44. polyradiculoneuritis
    inflammation of peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots leading to progressive paralysis with slow recovery; condition follows raccoon bites in some dogs, hence the name coonhound paralysis
  45. rabies
    highly fatal infection of nervous system that affects all warm-blooded animal species; transmitted by bite of infected animal or existing wound coming in contact with infected saliva; furious and dumb forms are described
  46. radiculitis
    inflammation of spinal nerve root
  47. roaring
    sonorous respiration caused by air passing through stenosed larynx; most common cause in horses is laryngeal hemiplegia, caused by degeneration of fibers in left recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of vagus)
  48. scrapie
    a chronic, fatal disease of sheep and goats with progressive degeneration of the central nervous system, possibly caused by prion infection. Named for the tendency of infected animals to scrape itching parts of the skin against objects
  49. seizure
    convulsion or attack of epilepsy
  50. senility
    deterioration, both physical and mental, related to aging
  51. spina bifida
    developmental anomaly characterized by defective formation of body spinal canal through which spinal membranes or cord may protrude
  52. tetanus
    highly fatal disease of all animal species caused by neurotoxin of Clostridium tetani; bacterial spores are deposited in tissues, usually by traumatic injury, and under anaerobic conditions vegetate; horses are particularly susceptable to this disease; lockjaw is popular synonym and symptom, along with generalized muscle spasms and seizures
  53. tick paralysis
    several species of ticks elaborate neurotoxin that typically causes ascending paralysis in many species, including humans
  54. tremor
    continuous repetitive twitching of skeletal muscle that is usually visible; may be caused by degenerative disease of nervous system or by toxins.
  55. vestibular disease
    sudden onset of head tilt, nystagmus, rolling, falling, and circling; seen in older dogs and in cats of all ages.

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