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Ten common pulse points of the body.
1. ______ Artery: Temple | _____ Artery: Corner Mouth
2. ______ Artery: Sides of Neck | _____ Artery: Arm pit region
3. ______ Artery: Antecubital | _____ Artery: Wrist
4. ______ Artery: lower abdomen | _____ Artery: Posterior Knee
5. ______ Artery: medial malleolus | ___ ___ Artery: Foot
- 1. Temporal / Facial
- 2. Carotid / Axillary
- 3. Brachial / Radial
- 4. Femoral / Popliteal
- 5. Tibial / Doraslis Pedis
Veins where lymph circulates, one of the main Systemic veins in the body. These are broken down into right and left sided veins, that will drain for the two ducts
What are Subclavian Veins?
1. ___ ____ Lymphatic sac located between the abdominal aorta and the second lumber region. This is where the thoracic duct begins
2. ____ the fluid of the lymphatic system, only moves in one direction through the system. When it pools in an area, the condition is referred to as ____ or lymphedema.
3. There are four main vessels (lymphatics) in the system. __ ___ are larger, irregular and more preamble then blood capillaries. Become large and are call lymph vessels, exist in all parts of body except bone marrow, epidermis, CNS and eyes
4. 2nd vessel, ___ ____ compared with veins, have thin walls and move valves that open in only one direction
5. 3rd vessel, _____ ____ is region draining structures where lymphatic vessels merge along simliar pathways, form one of two lymphatic ducts
6. The last pair of vessels are two main collecting ducts. The _____ ____ duct drains lymph from the right arm, right lymphatic side of head and right half of thorax in right subclavian vein. The ____ duct drains lymph from all remaining parts of body into subclavian vein
- 1. Cisterna Chyli
- 2. Lymph / Edema
- 3. Lymph Capillaries
- 4. Lymph Vessels
- 5. Lymphatic Trunks
- 6. Right Lymphatic / Thoracic
1. Immunity is the ______ and ______ defence reaction to invading microrganisms. Key components of this response are _____ and ___ ___ cells & structures of skin and chemical digestive enzymes are involved. There are two types
2. ______ Immunity: refers to nonspecific responses to invading pathogens. Can be effected by diet, mental health, environment and metabolism. (physical barrier, chemical barrier, protiens, phagocytes, fever, inflammation)
3. ______ Immunity: involves diverse but specific responces to invaders employing lymphocytes (B & T cells) . If pathogens pentrate 1st line of defense, the lymphatic system becomes activated. Specialized and 2 types: Humoral and Cellular immunity
4. The difference between them is _____ Immunity is response to invading pathogens and the immune response, when _____ Immunity are only activated upon intial contact with pathogen and needs to come in contact with pathogens.
- 1. Anatomical and physiological / Lymphocytes and white blood cells
- 2. Natural
- 3. Acquired
- 4. Natural / Acquired
1. ______ are a type of WBC that comprises approx 25% of total WBC count. increases in number to infections. There are two types formed in bone marrow that attack _____ by cloning themselves by thousands to attach them
2. _____ cells, once formed, need to mature to attach pathogens and mature in red bone marrow. Produce antibodies circulate in Blood
3. _____ cells, once formed, continues to mature by going to thymus to complete. There are three types of these cells that work toward fighting pathogens.
A. ___ ___ cells assist both main cells to fight infection by secreting hormones to stimulate
B. ___ ___ cells, kills body cells infected by pathogens
C. ___ ___ cells stay after the infection is contained to reconize the pathogen if it invades again, boosting immunity.
- 1. Lymphocytes / Pathogens
- 2. B-Cells
- 3. T-Cells
- A. Helper T cells
- B. Cytotoxic T cells
- C. Memory T cells
1. _____ ____ cell, located in red bone marrow, all blood cells are produced by this single, undifferneatiated cell. This is also produced itself in bone marrow, (contriversal cell topic)
2. _____ ____ cells, large lymphocytes and are neither B or T cells. They bind to pathogens and tumor cells to try to kill them
3. There are two primary generative lymphatic organs; the ____ marrow and the _____. The two secondary organs are the _____ and the ____ ____
4. The _____ is the largest lymphatic organ, lies within the left lateral rib cage (between 9th & 11th ribs), posterior to stomach. Stores blood cells and destroys old worn-out RBC's and platelets
5. The __ __ is bean-shaped structure powerful defense stations that help protect the body located along lymph vessels that collect and filter lymph. Only place where lymph is filtered.
6. The ____ group of specialised lymph tissues embedded in mucous membranes around throat, protect body
7. The ___ ___ are intestinal tonsils, groups of lymphatic nodes found in mucous membranes of small instestine ileum & jjeum, battles ingested pathogens. The __ __: located inferior to cecum and appendage of small intestine, help fight pathogens
- 1. Pluripotent Stem
- 2. Natural Killer Cell
- 3. Bone Marrow / Thymus | Spleen and Lymph Nodes
- 4. Spleen
- 5. Lymph Nodes
- 6. Tonsils
- 7. Peyer's Patches / Veriform Appendix
A collection of lymphoid cells or nodes in the mucosa or submucosa of the digestive track. Structures include Tossils, Peyer's Patches and Vermiform Appendix
What is Mucosal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (mALT)
What is the Anatomy of the Lymphatic System?
- 1. Lymph
- 2. Lymph Vessels
- 3. Lymph Glands
- 4. Lymphocytes
- 5. Lymphatic Organs
The three functions of the Lymphatic System
1. Drains ______ fluid
2. Transports dietary ____ and ____ -soluable vitamins (A,D,E and K) from the digestive track to the blood
3. Provides _____ against disease
The difference between Blood and Lymph Capillaries
4. ____ capillaries posses thin premeable membrane for effecient gas exchange, funcional unit of Cirulatory system, ends in tissues from arteroiles
5. ____ capillaries has same structucts but are larger more irregular and more premeable. Begins in tissue and moves out to Lymph Vessels
- 1. Interstitial
- 2. Lipids and Lipid
- 3. Immunity
- 4. Blood
- 5. Lymph
The Six Natural Immune Responses
1. __ ___ Skin mucosa and cilia phyically resist invaders
2. __ ___ Digestive enzymes, perspiration, vaginal secretions and acid mantel (on skin) from this barrier
3. __ ___ Proteins found in blood attach foreign agents
4. _____ cells that kill pathogens by approaching and engulfing them, digesting them with lymosal enzymes Neutrophils and Macrophages
5. _____ Body temperture elevates to destroy disease organisms
6. _____ Protective mechanism stabilizes and prepares damage tissue for repair. Heat, swelling, redness and pain decreased
- 1. Physical Barriers
- 2. Chemical Barriers
- 3. Complement Proteins
- 4. Phagocytes
- 5. Fever
- 6. Inflammation
Five factors that influence Blood Pressure
1. _____ - effect of friction between blood and vessel walls. Influenced by viscosity and diameter of the blood vessel
2. __ __ - blood volume expelled by heart
3. __ __- as this increases, blood pressure increases, result of condition like pregnancy
4. __ __-measures and attempts to maintain normal blood pressure through nervous, endocrine and urinary systems
5. ____ - vascular diseases such as arteiosclerosis may raise systolic blood pressure
- 1. Resistance
- 2. Cardiac Output
- 3. Blood Volume
- 4. Homeostactic Regulation
- 5. Diseases
What is the Anatomy of the Cardiovascular system?
Blood , Blood Vessels, Heart
1. Blood is made up of _____ (55%) , straw colored liquid which in itself is (90% water and 10% Solutes). Blood is a fluid medium and classified as ____ _____ tissue, essential to human life supplies oxygen and nutrients.
2. The 10% Solutes that make up the straw colored liquid are _______ (function for blood clotting), _____ (foundation of blood clots), proteins, hormones, enzymes and wastes.
3. It also contains Blood Cells or ____ ____ (45%), primarily in red bone marrow of long, flat bones and irregular bones. all these cells are produced from a single, undifferntiated cell called Pluripotent Stem Cell
4. ______ or Red Blood Cells, transport oxygen in the blood & carry away carbon dioxide. Most numerous cells in blood, contains no nucleus & biconcave shape to a greater surface area. _____ an iron based protein on this cell, is a red pigment that gives blood its red color.
5. ______ or While Blood Cells, part of body's immune system, protects body from invading bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Body's Defensive Mobile army. A type of these are Lymphocytes in the lymphatic system
6. ______ or Platelets, fragmented cells that help repair leaks in blood vessels through various clotting mechanisms. Their jagged shape helps them adhere to torn surfaces easily. Life span is aprox. 10 days.
7. Leukocytes are further broken down into two groups ______ Leukocytes (Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil) and _____ Leukocytes (Monocyte and Lymphocyte)
- 1. Plasma / Liquid Connective Tissue
- 2. Fibrinogen / Fibrin
- 3. Formed Elements
- 4. Erythrocytes / Hemoglobin
- 5. Leukocytes
- 6. Thrombocytes
- 7. Granular / Agranular
Located in the mediastinum region of the thoracic cavity and rests on the diaphragm. Approximately the size of a clenched fist, possesses four hollow chambers, pumping blood is its primary function, average of 70 beats per minute.
What is the Heart
The circle of events occuring with each alternating contraction and relaxtion of the heart muscle, coordinated by the conducting system. SA Nodes fire, squeezing atria to fill ventricles, signal travels to AV node, slows signal and sends to AV node, slows signal to apex of heart via bundle of His. Purkinje fibers coordinate simultaneous contraction of the ventricles.
What is the Cardiac Cycle?
Also known as a ECG, is a graphic tracing of the variatiions in electrical potential caused by the excitation of the heart muscle and detected at the body's surface
1. There are two circuits of Blood Circulation: _____ Circuit and _____ Circuit.
2, ____ Circuit, from heart to lungs and back. It Replenishs blood with O2 eliminates CO2
3. ____ Circuit, from heart to rest of body and back, brings nutrients & oxygen to all system. Located within this circuit is the ____ ____ System which collects blood from digestive organs and delivers this blood to the liver for processing and storage.
4. ______ is when the diameter of vascular lumen becomes narrower, and ______ is when diameter of vascular lumen becomes enlarged.
5. These two mechanisms are intiated by two sources; Direct _____ Stimulation (from vasomotor center in Medulla Oblengota) and Local _____ Response (from stimulus such as pressure or heat/cold)
- 1. Pulmonary and Systemic
- 2. Pulmonary
- 3. Systemic / Hepatic Portal System
- 4. Vasoconstriction / Vasodialation
- 5. Nerve / Reflex
The Three Mechanism of Blood Clotting
1. __ __ when smooth muscle in vessels is torn, it begins to spasm, reducing blood flow. Process can be for up to 30 minutes.
2. __ __ when platelets come into contact with damaged blood vessel, their physical characteristics change by becoming large & sticky, causing them to clump together and form a plug, seals damage vessels
3. ____ also known as clot formation, process trasnforming fibrinogen into fibrin threads that trap red blood cells and then tighten the platelet plug into a clot. Once formed, goes through a process of retraction that draws the injured vessels walls close together
- 1. Vascular Spasm
- 2. Platelet Plug
- 3. Coagulation
Three Functions of the Cardiovascular System
1. Protection of body through disease-fighting ___ ___ cells and removal of impurities and pathogens
2. Prevention of _______ through clotting mechanisms
3. Transportation and distribution of the ___ ___, nutrients from the digestive system, antibodies, waste materials and ____ from endocrine glands. Transportation of _____ from active muscles
- 1. White Blood Cells
- 2. Hemorrhage
- 3. Respitory Gases / hormones / Heat
1. _____ is local decrease blood flow is often marked by pain and tissue dysfunction. Occurs when blood flow is disturbed, such as sustained muscular contraction or spasm
2. _____ is local increase blood flow causing skin to become reddened and warm. Condition occurs during massage or heat application
3. _____ any deviation from a normal heart rate patter, or number of ventricular contractions per minute (bpm)
4. _____ or slow heart rate (less than 50 bpm) condition may result from disease or often nornal for physically fit.
5. _____ or rapid heart rate (greater than 100 bpm) conditon may result from fever, exercise, or emotions such as anxiety. Body's respone to increased demand for oxygen by the tissues.
- 1. Ischemia
- 2. Hyperemia
- 3. Arrhythmia
- 4. Bradycardia
- 5. Tachycardia
Three Blood Vessels of the Body
1. ______ are vessels that move blood away from the heart, blood within these vessels is oxygenated, walls possess tunics. Only one of these vessels contains deoxygenated blood which is the ____ ____.
2. When Arteries continue to branch off into smaller, thinner vessels, losing two layers and becoming ______. They then become one layer thick and have to move blood cells single file, they are called ______,
3. ______ are vessels that drain the tissues and organs & return deoxygenized blood back to heart & lungs. Containing tunics & beginning at the Capillary level and gradullary become larger. The small type of these vessels are called ______
4. To assist Venous flow veins have a ____ _____ . Lumina in veins are larger than arteries , contains a one-way valve system functions, combined with the pumping action of muscular contraction in the limbs.
5. The pressure excerted by blood on arterial walls during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart is ____ _____. It is often measured by the brachial artery by a ______ (cuff)
6. The two measurments of this pressure are _____ (bottom number) or pressure against the arterial wall during rest or pause between contractions, and _____ (top number) or pressue exerted on the arterial wall during ventricular contraction
- 1. Arteries / Pulmonary Artery
- 2. Arteroiles / Capillaries
- 3. Veins / Venules
- 4. Venous Pump
- 5. Blood Pressue / Sphygmamometer
- 6. Diastole / Systole
The Four Blood Types of Humans
1. Type __ blood (40% of humans) contains A-antigens, B-antibodies, recieve blood from A or O only, can donate to A or AB
2. Type __ blood (10% of humans) contains B-antigens, A-antibodies, recieve blood from B or O only, can donate to B or AB
3. Type __ blood (4% of humans) contains AB-antigens, no antibodies, recieve blood from all types but can only donate to type AB. Also known as the universal ______.
4. Type __ blood (46% of humans) contains no antigens and does not react to other types, AB antibody, can recieve blood only from its own type, but can donate to all types. Also know as the universal ______.
- 1. A
- 2. B
- 3. AB / Recipient
- 4. O / Donor
The Structures of the Heart
1. The heart has covering called _____, a double-layered sac. Outer layer is tough Fibrous connective tissues, inner layer is full of serous fluid to decrease friction.
2. The heart wall has three layers ______ (thin outer layer of serous membrane), _____ thick cardiac muscle layer that makes up bulk of heart wall and _____ a thin inner lining of the heart chambers and vessels of the heart.
3. Part of the makeup of the heart, _____ are little flaps of endothelium located between the chambers of the heart and between the ventricles and some of the great vessels.
4. The heart has four chambers. The Superior chambers, or ______ take in blood through large veins and then pump it to the inferior chambers.
5. The Inferior chambers, or _____ these lower chambers pump blood to the body's organs and tissues.
6. A way to remember this is the short words R.A.T. L.A.M.B.
- 1. Percardium
- 2. Epicardium / Myocardium / Endocardium
- 3. Valves
- 4. Atria
- 5. Ventricles
- 6. Right Atrioventricular Tricuspid | Left Atrioventricular Mitral Bicuspid
Structures of the Heart
1. There are 2 atrium and 2 ventricles; the ____ atrium recieves oxygen rich blood from pulmonary veins. During contraction, blood passes from here to the ____ ventricle, which has the thickest heart wall because it pumps blood throughout the body, the blood eject is ___ ___.
2. Moving to the ____ atrium, this side receives blood from all parts of the body except the lungs. Blood is recieved from the Superior Vena Cava and the Inferior Vena Cava to the _____ ventricle.
3. Aftering recieving the blood from the atrium, the -__ ventricle it pumps through the pulmonary trunk and into the right and left pulmonary arteries.
4. Between both ventricles and their adjacent arteries, ____ ____ consists of three half moon shaped cusps, two types; ____ __ valve which is betwen the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk and ____ __ valve which is between the left ventricle and the aorta
5. A type of valve that seperates Atria from the ventricles, ___ valves are held in place by tendonlike cords called ____ ____. The lubb sound of the heart is when these valves close.
6. The _____ valve, also known as bicuspid valve, is left valve possesing two flaps or cusps. The _____ valve is the right valve and possess three flaps or cusps.
- 1. Left / Left / Stroke Volume
- 2. Right / Right
- 3. Right
- 4. SL Valves / Pulmonary SL / Aortic SL
- 5. AV / Chordae Tendinae
- 6. Mitral Valve / Tricuspid Valve
1. _____ parts of the hearts conduction system which coordinate and sychronize the hearts activity
2. ___ __ Sinoatrial node, lies between the right atrium, intiates cardiac impulse, also known as pacemaker
3. _____ known as being capable of self-excitation
4. ___ __ atrioventricular node, runs in interventricular septum to the right/left ventricles
5. ___ __ also known as the bundle of His
6. ___ __ also known as conducting fibers and coordinate the simulanous contraction of ventricles
- 1. Nodes
- 2. SA Node
- 3. Autorhythmic
- 4. AV Node
- 5. AV Bundle
- 6. Purkinje Fibers