History 311 Ch 23-2
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What occured in the pacific with the Japanese until mid-1942?
Americans reeled from one defeat from the next. Japs swept through SE Asia, & W Pacific Islands. Americans surrendered in the Philipines. Japs planned an attach in Moresby, Australia. Americans won in Coral Sea 5 3-8,1942 and Midway 6 4-6, 1942 which had Japs call off Austrailia attack. Japs took heavy losses in Midway which prevented Japs from launching any more major naval offences for the rest of the war
What was the "Europe First" strategy?
at first the us wanted to get supplies across to the allies. The germans subs sunk an avg of 100 ships a month crossing the atlantic. Summer of 1943 the tide turned and better air survailance improved radar. The duscovery theat the germans broke the convoy-routing code and breaking german sub code equalled ally success in the atlantic.
What was FDR and Churchills strategy despite Stalins request to go through France?
FDR did not want to have another stalemate like in WWI. They chose to enter Europe thru africa by attacking the germans in sicily. Italy surrendered on 9/8/43. German troops invaded the Italian peninsula, saving mussolinis regime and keeping allied troops bogged down in a bloody campaing that lasted until the speing of 45. Moussolini tried to escape in 1945 and the Italians captured him and his mistress and shot/strung them upside down in a public sq in milan where resistance fighters had been executed.
What happened with the first major incendiary attack by the allies in 1943?
Bombing raids on Hamburg, a major industrial German city that killed 45000 and wounded 40000. Britians views on bombing civilians in were hardened but the US just wanted to hit military industrial installation. Dresden (railroad yards) in 2/1945 killed 35000 germans.
What is terror bombing?
the strategy of dropping high concentrations of bombs on civilian populations to create panic and misery
What happened with the meeting with Churchill, FDR and Stalin in 11/1943 in Tahran, Iran?
Discussed the strategy for the upcoming yr. FDR was impressed with Stalin and stayed in the Soviet Embassy despite Churchills more leery of soviet intentions to expand its influence into E Europe after the war. The soviets victory in 2/1943 at stalingrad, a pivotal battle that put the allies on the path to victory. Soviets then prevailed in Leningrad, ending a 900 day german siege of the city.
How did FDR, Stalin and Churchill proceed in WWII?
Churchill wanted to join the fight in the East by launching a war on the Balkins thru the Adriatic Sea. American interest lied in France and Britian. FDR was reluctant to send troops to Russian areas they were intending on occupying after the war. FDR convinced Churchill to invade france in 1944. FDR was hoping Stalin would help with with the war in the Pacific.
What happened in early 1943 in the S Pacific?
US attacked the soft underbelly of the japs in the S Pacific with attacks on the Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands and on New Guinea. Japs withdrew his defeat in the S Pacific to new defensive line that extended thru the SE Asia, the Philippines and the Marina Islands.
What was the two pronged attack the US used against the Japs?
From the central pacific the US set up a naval blockade that cut Japan off from supplies in the south. The US took the Gilbert and Marshall islands. The US destroyed so many naval aircraft in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, Saipan Marianas (June 19-20, 1944), known as "the Great Marianas Turkey Shoot". The Marianas were taken in 8/1944 that brought the US was close enough for B-29s that 2000 miles from Japan.
What did General MacArthur do?
He said "I shall return" when FDR ordered him to go to Australia and leave his embattled troops in the Phillipines in 1942. He publicized his return in 1944 walking on shore. He said on the radio to the People of the Phillippines I have returned, rally to me in Leyte gulf.
What was the largest naval battle in history?
The battle of Leyte Gulf. 10/23-15 1944 ended with an American Victory. It took until 7/1945 to completely liberate isolated phillipines infantrys.
How did the Japs fights in the Caroline islands through the rest of the war.
Waged a war of attrition. Japan introduced a set of suicidal battlefield tactics on land and sea in the fall of 1944 land air and sea. Japs resolved to fight till the last man in hid in caves, bunkers nd prolonged the battle. The battle of Leyte Gulf introduced the first Kamikaze pilots that damaged 5 ships and sank 1.
What were first hand accounts of the Japs actions?
James Fahey on a ship under attack said the sailors battled for hours. "The explotions were terrific as the suicide planes exploded in the water... the water looked like was on fire." Debris from the planes were kept as souvenirs. They collected jap solider parts to send home. Life mag published an article of a women holding a jap skull sent from her fiance.
When was the final push in Europe.
June 6 1944 the Allies launched the D Day invasion of Normandy in N France under the command of General DW Eisenhower. "The eyes are upon you." Eisenhower was raised as a poor Jehovah Witeness Kansas fam. He became a hero which postwar presidental canidate.
What was the Holocaust?
Hitler percecuted the jews thru the 30s. Kristallnacht 1938 german business and homes caused FDR to grant some asylums. FDR refused to bomb the internment camps and later the ground forces liberated them. 6 mill jews, 3 mill soviets, 2 mill non jew poles, 200000 disabled, 10000 jahovahs and many homosexuals killed
How did the images instruct americans about the meaning of the holocaust and their role as liberators?
US posted pictures around german towns and drove truckloads of corpses assembling germans to hear a lecture on barbarity. In some cases they were made to bury them. Allies tied 22 Nazi leaders to the Nuremberg war crimes trials.
What new tactic raised dealth tolls in the Pacific?
Atomic bomb now tested in New Mexico. Japans "cave and bunker" tactive on land and kamikazes at sea raised the cost of Iwo Jima. 2-6,1945, Iwo Jima and Okinawa produced some of the toughest fighting of the war.
Dropping the atomic bomb
FDR died at 65 of a cerebral hemorrahage on 4/1945. Vice president Harry Truman was kept in the dark about a $20 billion manhattan Project code-named secret govt research program established to produce the atomic bomb. On 8/6/45 B-29 bomber the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on the city of hiroshima. Sgt George Caron snapped the photos. 2nd one dropped in Nagasaki. The cities were considered minimal military value more of a psychological weapon.
What was the Paul Fussell 1988 essay>
When we learned to our astonishment that we would not be obliged in a few months to rush up the beaches near Tokyo assultfiring while being machine gunned, mortared and shelled for all the practiced phlegm of out tough facades we broke down and cried with relief and joy. We are going to live. We were going to grow to adulthood after all. Thank god for the atomic bomb
How did the war finally end?
Soviets were aware of the American monopoly on nucs. When the first bomb destroued Hiroshima, the Soviets invade Manchuria on 8/8/1945 to sieze their planned territorial objectives before the war ended. By 8/10 with 2 atomic bombs and the Soviet entry into the war caused Jap Emperer Hirohito to sued for peace as long as the Imperial Institution remain.
What were the decisions and consquences on how to use the atomic bomb?
Truman chose to drop both atomic bombs on virgin sites to magnify the psychological shock of one bomb causing so much destruction. Truman vaguely informed Stalin of a new weapon of unusual destrutive force, unaware that spies in the Manhattan Project had already alerted Stalin of the bombs existence. 8/6/45 Little boy dropped on Hiroshima killing 80000 (3/4ths of the city) and Fat Boy destroyed 2/5ths killing 35000 on 8/9. The Emperor surrendered on 8/14. Trumans attempted seccrecy increased Soviet distrust of the US and unleased a nuclear arms race between the two nations.
What happened to the Japs during war crime trials?
Hiohito escaped facing trials as a war criminal but allies intended to punish other japs. More than a 1000 officials and officers committed suicide and others destroued 1000 of documents concerning jap mistreatment of prisoners of war and massacres of civilians in occuppied countries. 1000's were convicted and 28 major leaders in Tokyo.
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