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Types of insecure attachment (3)
Types of parenting (4)
Ability to engage in sustained, responsive interaction with peers.
The ability to feel what another is feeling and to respond with comfort or help if the person is distressed.
A quality allowing children to develop normally in spite of severe environmental risk factors.
Part of personal identity that reflects racial/cultural/religious group that we belong to.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
- Stage 1 & 2: preconventional moral reasoning: (up to age 9)- selfish, avoidign punishment or following rules when it's to their own benefit.
- Stage 2 & 3 (9-19) Conventional moral reasoning: Concerned for other people, considers obligations such as marriage vows, duty to family or country
- Stage 4&5 (19+) Postconventional moral reasoning: Protection of human life, based on personal standards/values more than rules or laws.
Piaget's Developmental Stages
- Birth-2y.o sensorimotor: sensations and actions, development phenomena: Object permanence
- 2y.o.-6/7 Preoperational: using sybols, uses intuition, pretend play
- 7-11 Concrete operational: thinking logically, grasping concrete analogies: conservation/ mathematical transformations
- 12- adulthood Formal operational: abstract reasoning, potential for matue moral reasoning.
Erik Erikson's "ages of man"
- Infancy (birth to 1y.o)- Trust vs. mistrust. [Basic Trust| World is predictable and reliable, mistrust neceassary for danger avoidance. Too much mistrust- frustrated, withdrawn, suspicious, lacking in self-confidence]
- Toddlerhood (1-2y.o) Autonomy vs. shame/doubt. [greater physical & psychological independance with new vunreabilities. Switching between wanting and not wanting autonomy]
- Pre-schooler (3-5y.o.) Initiative vs. guilt [Taken on new tasks and activites, may feel guilt when effort result in failure or criticism (broken toy); development of guilt and conscience and social awareness]
- Primary school (6y-puberty) Competence vs. inferiority [ school entry exposes children to larger knowledge and learning, success: feeling of compentency and mastery or failure: inadequacy and inferiority]
- Adolescence (teen to 20s) Identity vs role confusion. May try out several roles. Identity achievement " i know who i am and what I want from life".
- Young adulthood (20-40s) Intimacy vs. isolation: developing capacity for intimacy; important relationships with mates, failed attempts at intimacy leads to isolation, cold and empty relationships.
- Middle Adulthood : (40s to 60s) Generativity vs. stagnation: establishing and guiding the next generation, work or parenthood. Lack of generativity--> life seems empty, and purposefulness, may lead to lack of psychological growth.
- Late adulthood (60+) Integrity vs despair: reflection: Integrity: acceptance of limitations of life, appreciation of wisdom fained, sense of being part of history. Despair: regret for what they haven't/have done, fear of approaching death.
Identities involved in adolescent stage of Erik Erikson's ages of man
- Identity achievement: I know who i am and what I want from life
- Identity Foreclosure: I am and want what my parents want me to be
- Negative Identity: I am the opposite of what my parents want from me
- Identity diffusion: I don't know what i am or what i want
- Identity very much linked with self-esteem
Cross-sectional research vs. longitudinal design
- Cross-sectional research: taking a sample of all ages, and comparing the ages. Advantages, quick, easy. Disadvantage of cohort effects: Same age therefore lived similar experiences.
- Longitudinal Research: Test participants at different ages in their lives. Takes longer, drop-outs may not be random, but good: avoid cohort-effects.
patterns of thinking, behaviour and feeling that are: maladaptive, disruptive (to them or those in contact with), uncomfortable. Results in distress or significant impairment in social/occupational functioning
Being diagnosed with >1 disorder
Characteristics of Abnormality:
Dysfunctional, maladaptive, violates social-norms, causes distress or discomfort, personal suffering, adverse effects (short or long term)
Theories towards psychological disorders (9)
- medical model: spiritual to medical; psychiatric illness treaed in psychiatric hospitals
- Biopsycosocial model: combination and interaction of biological, psychological and social influences.
- Biological: Lesions, chemical imbalances and psychological dysfunction etc. psychosurgery and drug treatment
- Humanistic: blockage of tendency towards growth
- Social learning theory: past learning and current situations
- Psychodynamic: repressed urges and desires. Based on development of personality and events of childhood- treatment involves psychoanalysis
- Neurobiological: Chemical and anatomical dysfunctions of the brain (and other processes)
- Psychological: psychological issue
- Socio-cultural; related to personal factors such as age, culture, gender, etc.
An approach to psychological disorders where disorders occur when a tendency towards a disorder meets sufficient stress to trigger the symptoms.
Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders: contains 5 acis; Axis 1: major psychological disorders, Axis 2: personality disorders and lifelong conditions and retardation, Axis 3: mental conditions, Axis 4: psychosocial or environmental factors influencing Axis 5: current level of psychological, social and occupational functioning.
Some form of anxiety is a major characteristic
Disordered thoughts that leaves people "out of touch with reality" or unable to function on a daily basis
The extent to which different diagnosians/mental health professionals give the same diagnostic label
Issues with Diagnosis of mental disorders
Comorbidity, overlap of symptoms, don't have to have all the symptoms, continuums of disorders/arbitrary boundaries, when does something become abnormal, Personal bias
A mental disorder characterised by long-standing and disruptive apprehension:
an anxiety disorder involving a strong irrational fear of objects/ situations that causes a reaction that cannot be objectively justified
Anxiety disorders involving specific phobias (intense fears) about specific objects or situations
Phobias about almost all social situations; fear of being laughed at or acting in a way that will cause embarrasment or humiliation
Taijin kyofin sho
Fear of embarrasing those aroudn you
A strong fear of being away from a safe place
Generalised Anxiety Disorder
A condition that involves rrrelatively mild but long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on particular situations or oibjects.
An anxiety disorder characterised by sudden and disruptive panic attacks.
Obsessive compulsive Disorder
A disorder involving repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain rituals.
Disorders in which physical symptoms present in the absense of a physical cause.
Somatoform disorder in which person displays blindness, deafness or other symptoms of sensory/motor disruption/ failure without a physical cause. Person appears to have little concern, and it allows the person to escape high levels of stress through avoidance
A somatoform disorder involving a strong, unjustified fear of having physical illness
Numerous physical complaints without a verifiable physical illness
Marked by complaint of pain (neck, chest, back) with no physical cause
Rare conditions involving a temporary disruptions to memory, identity or consciousness.
Involves a sudden loss of memory, and assumption of a new identity in a new locale.
Loss of memory
Disociative indentity disorder
A dissociative disorder in which a person report to having more than one identity
Conditions in which a person experiences extreme moods such as mania and depression, especially when moods are not correlated with environment/events occuring around them.
Major depressive disorder
A mood where a person feel hopeless and sad for weeks or months
False beliefs such as those experienced by schizophrenics or extreme depresseion
A mood disorder involving a pattern of comparitively mild depression that last for at least 2 years
Bipolar Diorder (I)
A mood disorder in which a person alternates between deep depression and mania
An elated, very active emotional state
Involves episodes of depression and mania, but the intensity of each state is less sever than in bipolar 1
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Seasonal disorder in which decreased daylight leads to extreme depression, accompanied by increased irritability and excessive sleeping
Antisocial personality disorder
A disorder involving impulsive, selfish, unscrupulous even criminal behaviour
Is a predominatntly young, female disorder influenced by cultural norm.
Tranquilisers, reduc mental/physical tension
The sum of an individual's traits, a set of enduring pattern of perceiving, relating ro, and thinking about the environment and oneself, automatic functioning.
Difference between normal personality and personality disorder?
Enduring, deviates from expectations, effects cognition, impulse control, interpersonal relations.
Big 5 personality traits
- extraversion vs. introversion
- Agreeable vs. hostility
- Conscientiousness vs. careless/chaotic
- Emotional stability vs. moody/ anxious
- Open to experience vs. routine loving
Lacks friends, indifferent to praise or criticism, shows emotional coldness, detachment or flattened effect.
Borderline personality Disorder
Instability of relationships, self-image and effect. Attempt to avoid abandonment, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships.