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  1. What is the origin of water at Earth's surface?
    "through outgassing from volcanoes
  2. Why are the oceans salty?
    Streams picked up dissolved salts on land surfaces and carried them down to the oceans
  3. What is the distribution of water on Earth? Distinguish between fresh and saltwater reservoirs.
    "oceans (Salt)
  4. Describe the hydrologic cycle.
    "Water evaporates into the sky
  5. Distinguish between surface runoff and groundwater and describe their characteristics.
    Surface runoff flows into a river. Groundwater is precipitation absorbed into the ground.
  6. Describe the possible paths that water can take once it falls upon the ground.
    on a surface runoff or infiltration.
  7. What most affects the partitioning of water between infiltration and runoff and why?
  8. Why is the root zone important? What would happen to recharge if the root zone were twice as deep?
    Root zone aborbs water and reduces infiltration.
  9. Why is irrigation included? Can you think of another possible source of Water In to the surface?
    Irrigation is artificial watering.
  10. "If you cover a surface with concrete and asphalt
    how would that affect each term in the soil water balance? "
  11. What determines surface runoff?
    determined by the properties of the surface itself.
  12. How do forests affect runoff and infiltration?
  13. What are some potentially negative effects of deforestation?
    the soil becomes compacted and surface runoff greatly increases.
  14. How can deforestation cause rivers to dry up?
    "reduced recharge
  15. How can converting forest to grassland reduce the overall transpiration losses from a watershed?
    This works because grasses have much shallower root systems than trees.
  16. What is soil?
    The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
  17. Why would crushed rock not be considered soil?
    "it is a highly complex
  18. What is soil made of?
    "it is a highly complex
  19. How do termites help soil fertility in the tropics?
    They are burrowing into the B horizon where nutrients have been deposited and carrying those essential elements back to the surface.
  20. How does bauxite form?
    "This process of eluviation and illuviation is particularly pronounced and deep in the tropics. Aluminum
  21. "What are sand
  22. What can affect soil color?
    may provide clues to the processes that affect soil however. Red colors are usually a product of iron oxidation. White often indicates that iron has been removed. Black soils usually (but not always) have a high organic content.
  23. How can acidity affect soil fertility?
    Acid in the soil strips nutrients from colloids and allows them to be removed in solution as water filters downward.
  24. When and why do plants wilt?
    "If water is not added to the soil
  25. What is a hierarchical classification system?
    "Soils are classified using a hierarchical system
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