Biology Chapter 2

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Biology Chapter 2
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2011-11-13 19:50:26
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bio chapter 2
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  1. Living this are a collection of?
    Atom and molecules
  2. Atoms are what?
    • Smallest functional units of matter
    • form all chemical substance
    • cannot be further broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical or physical means
  3. Each specific type of atom is a?
    Chemical Element
  4. What is the 3 subatomic particles?
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • electrons
  5. Protons properties?
    • positive charged
    • found in nucleus
    • same number as electrons
    • # of atomic number
  6. Neutrons
    • neutral
    • nucleus
    • numbers can vary
  7. electrons
    • negative charged
    • found in orbitals
    • same number of protons
  8. What charge does atoms have?
    No electric charge
  9. Periodic table
    • organized by atomic number
    • rows correspond to number of electon shells
    • columns left to right tell the number of electrons inthe outer shell
    • elements within a column are similar b.c they have the same outer shells and have similar chemical bonding properties.
  10. Atomic Mass
    • protons and neutrons = in mass
    • hydrogen atom has an atomic mass of 1
  11. Dalton
    • measurement for atomic mass
    • 1 (d)= 1/12 the mass of carbon atom
    • carbon has an atomic mass of 12 daltons
  12. Mole
    • 1 mole of any element contains the same number of atoms- 6.022x10^23
    • avogadro's number
  13. isotopes
    • Multiple forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons
    • atomic masses are averages of the wieghts of different isotopes of an element.
  14. Which elements are important in biology?
    • Hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • carbon
    • nitrogen
  15. HOCN
    • 95% of atoms in living organisms
    • H and O in water
    • N in proteins
    • C in building block of all living matter
  16. what percentage does mineral elements have in HOCN
    less than 1%
  17. What percentage does trace elements have in HOCN
    less than 0.015
  18. Molecules
    2 or more atoms bonded together
  19. Molecular formula
    • Chemical symbols of elements found in a molecule
    • subscript indicates how many of each atom are present
  20. Compound
    • Molecule composed of two or more elements
    • H20
  21. Types of chemical bonds
    • covalent
    • hydrogen
    • ionic
  22. Covalent bonds
    • atoms share pair of electrons
    • strongest of all chemical bonds
    • Share:
    • Single bond H-F
    • Double Bond O=O
    • triple bond
  23. Octet Rule
    • Atoms are stable when their outer shell is full
    • outer shell fills with 8 electrons
    • exception:hydrogen, fills its outer shell with 2 electrons.
  24. Electronegativity
    • Attract an electron from another atom
    • In a bond, electrons are more likely to be closer to the atom with higher electonegativity-polar covalent bond.
  25. Chemical structure of water
    • Polar covalanet
    • electrons are more electronegative oxygen atom rather than less electronegative hydrogen atoms
    • molecules has partial negative charge region and a partial positive charge region
  26. Hydrogen bonds
    • Weak polar bonds
    • Hydrogen atoms from one molecue is attracted to an electronegative atom from another molecule
    • (dash or dotted line)
    • Strong bonds
    • Holds DNA stands together
  27. Ion
    • atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
    • net electric charge
    • have a charge if they gain or loose electrons
  28. Cations
    Postive Charge
  29. Anions
    Net negative charge
  30. What are the 2 net electric charge of Ionic bonds
    • Cations
    • Anions
  31. How do ionic bonds occurs
    Cations binds to an anion
  32. Properties of water
    • solution
    • solvent
    • solutes
    • adhesion/ surface tension
    • Ph
    • High boiling point
    • Density is lower when frozen
    • High heat capacity
    • Participates in reactions
  33. solutions is made up of?
    • solvent- liquid
    • solutes- substances dissolved in solvent
  34. aqueous solution has what solvent
    water is the solvent
  35. ions and molecules contain what bond for it dissolve in water?
    colvalent bonds
  36. Hydrophillic
    • dissolve in water
    • ions and molecules that contain polar covalent bonds
  37. Hydrophobic
    • dont easily dissolve in water
    • nonpolar molecules like hydrocarbon
  38. Amphipathic molecule
    • polar or ionized regions at one or more sites
    • nonpolar regions at other sites
  39. Properties of water depends on
    concentratino of dissolved solute
  40. what happens when you add solutes to water?
    • lowers freezing point below 0 degrees C
    • raises its boiling point above 100C
  41. Important function in living organisms
    • Participates in chemical reactions (hydrolysis or dehydration)
    • provides force or support
    • remove toxic waste components
    • evaporative cooling
    • cohension and adhesion
    • high heat capacity
  42. Pure water has the ability to ionize to a very small extent to what 2 ions.
    • Hydrogen ions (H+)
    • hydroxide ions (OH-)
  43. Acids are moelcules that release what in a solution?
    • Hydrogen ions
    • ("proton donor")
    • a strong acid releases more H+ than a weak acid.
  44. Bases lower what concentration?
    • H+ (base is an H+ acceptor)
    • some OH-
    • others bind H+
  45. PH formula
    pH=- log10 [H+]
  46. acidic solution is where on ph scale?
    below 7
  47. Alkaline (bases) are where on PH?
    Above 7
  48. Ph of a solution can affect?
    • shapes and function of molecules
    • rates of many chemicals reactions
    • ability of two molecules to bind to eachother
    • ability of ions or molecules to dissolve in water
  49. Buffers
    • keep a constant pH
    • acid base buffer system can shift to generate or release H+ to adjust for changes in pH
  50. Organic Chemistry
    • organic molecules contain Carbon
    • abundant in living organisms
    • biologically relevant macromolecules are large, complex organic molecules.
  51. Carbon prop.
    • 4 electrons in its outer shell
    • needs 4 more electrons to fill the shell
    • make up to four bonds (single or double)
    • form non-polar and polar bonds
  52. nonpolar bonds are
    poorly water soluble
  53. polar bonds
    more water soluble
  54. oxygen occurs in two functional groups?
    • hydroxyl
    • carbonyl
    • Both contibute to solubility of biomolecules
  55. Hydroxyl groups
    • 1 hydrogen paired with 1 oxygen atom
    • (-OH)
    • not highly reactive, but contribute to making molecules soluble in water.
    • Alcohol and sugars are "loaded" w/ them.
  56. Carbonyl
    • 1 oxygen atom double bonded to C atom
    • (C=O)
    • contribute to making molecules water soluble.
    • sugars one group
  57. Carboxyl groups
    "Carboylic acids"
    • ionize and dissociate into H+ and COO-
    • confer acidic properties to molecules
  58. Amino groups
    • Basic and often become ionized to form a positive charged NH3+ group.
    • NH2-H----> NH3+
  59. sulfhydryl and disulfide groups
    • S-H sulfyhydryl
    • S-S disulfide
  60. Phosphate
    (PO4^2-)
  61. Isomers 2 of them?
    identical molecular formular, diffrent structures.
    • structual isomers
    • stereoisomers
  62. Structural isomers
    Contain the same atom but in diffrent bonding patterns
  63. Stereoisomers
    identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positiong of the atoms differs in the two isomers.
  64. 4 major type of biomolecules
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
    • many biomolecules are large polymers made up of repeating monomer subunits
  65. Carbohydrates
    • Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms
    • Cn(H2O)n
    • or CnH2n)n
  66. Monosaccharids
    • simples sugars and carbs
    • 5 or 6 carbons are common
    • (C5H10O6) - pentoses-ribose
    • (9C5H10O4)- deoxyribose
    • (C6H12O6)- hexose glucose
  67. Disaccharids
    • carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharids
    • joined by dehydration or condensation reaction
    • hydrolysis breaks them apart.
  68. lactoste interolerance
    inability to cleave lactose into monosaccharids
  69. polysaccharids
    • monosaccharids linked together to form
    • Examples
    • engergy storage- startch, gylcogen
    • structural role- cellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycans
  70. Carbohydrate break down to release engergy and store it?
    ATP form
  71. Lipids
    • Hydrogen and carbon atoms composed
    • *nonpolar and very insoluble in water*
    • structurally diverse
    • store energy
  72. Fats
    • Triglycerides mixture
    • bonds glycerol to three fatty acids
    • dehydration or condensation reaction joins them together.
    • hydrolysis breaks them
    • 3 carbon backbone (glycerol) attatches to a long fatty acid chain.
  73. how is fat formed?
    dehydration reaction in which fatty acids are added to glycerol
  74. fatty acids 2 types?
    • saturated
    • unsaturated
  75. saturated fatty acids
    • all carbons linked by single covalent bonds
    • solid at room temp.
  76. unsaturated
    • contain one or more double bonds
    • 1 double bond- momounsaturated
    • 2 or more- polyunsaturated
    • liquids at room temp
    • polyunsat- more than one double bond.
  77. trans fats
    • unsaturated fat that are partially hydrogenated through an industrial process
    • different isomerization around double bond
    • more hazardous to the heart than saturated fats.
    • Exaple: crisco, margine
  78. Fats
    • important for engergy storage
    • 1g is twice as much energy as 1 gram of glycogen or starch.
    • provide structural in providing cushioning and insulation
  79. phospholipids
    • glycerol, 2 fatty acids and phosphate groups
    • form membranes (building blocks)
  80. steroids
    • four interconnected rings of carbon atoms
    • not water soluble
    • cholestrol
    • estrogen and testosterone differ slightly
    • important hormoes and signaling molecules
  81. Protein functions?
    • enzymes catalysis
    • defense
    • transport
    • support
    • motion
    • regulation
    • storage
  82. proteins are made up of?
    • amino acids
    • common structre with variable R-group
    • 20 amino acids
    • side chain determines structure and function
  83. structure of amino acids.
    • R groups confer different prop to amino acids.
    • joined by dehydration/condensation reaction.
    • - peptide bond
    • forms polypeptides
    • proteins are madeup of 1 or more polypeptides
    • broken apart by hydrolysis
  84. Protein structure
    • Primary- linear chain of amino acids
    • Secondary- alpha helices, beta sheets,
    • Tertiary- 3D arrangement of 2 elements
    • Quaternary- how multiple polyeptide chains interact with each other.
  85. Primary structure
    • amino acids sequence
    • determined by genes
    • represented by either three-letter or one-letter code.
    • Alanine - Ala A
    • Tyrosine- Tyr Y
    • Glutamine- Gln Q
  86. 1 chain of amino acids is one polypeptide.
  87. secondary structure
    • Chemical and physical interactons cause folding
    • Alpha helices and Beta sheets.
    • Random coiled regions
    • - unstructured regions not alpha=helix or beta= pleated sheets
  88. Factors promoting protein folding and stability?
    • Hydrogen bonds- weak
    • ionci bonds- cation and anions that are attracted to each other
    • hydrophobic effect- like the same
    • van der waals forces- attractive forces occur between atoms that are optimal distances apart.
    • disulfide bridges
  89. Tertiary structure
    folding of secondary elements gives complex three dimensional shape
  90. Quaternary structure
    • 2 or more polypeptides
    • - protein subunits
    • - multimeric proteins
  91. Protein - protein interactions
    • cellular processes involve steps in which two or more different proteins interact with each other
    • specific binding at surface
  92. All information needed is stored in the sequence itself of the Primary structure of ribonucleases.
  93. Protein misfolding causes several disease.
    • mad cow
    • alzheimers
    • cystic fibrosis
    • parkinson
    • huntingtons
  94. Prions are what type of proteins?
    infectious
  95. Nucleic Acids
    • responsible for the storage, expression and transmission of genetic info.
    • DNA
    • - stores genetic info
    • RNA
    • - decodes dna information into instructions for building polypeptide chain
    • has other regulatory and strucural functions
  96. Nucleotides are bulidng block of nucleic acids.
  97. nucloetide has?
    • phosphate group
    • 5 carbon sugar (ribosome or deoxyribose)
    • single or double ring of Carbon and nitrogen atoms- nitrogenous base
  98. Nucleotide Formula
  99. Nucleid Acid Structure
    • Dna is usllay found in dbl standed molecule.
    • RNA exists as a single bond.
  100. DNA
    Deoxyribose
    • double helix
    • complementary base pairing
    • hydrogen bonding
    • Thymine
  101. RNA
    Ribose
    • ribose instead of deoxyribose
    • contains uracil in place of thymine
    • Uracil
    • several forms.
  102. DNA VS RNA

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