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2011-11-06 03:14:34

Chemistry Stuff
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  1. Acid - Metal reaction
    An acid - metal reaction is when an acid reacts with a metal. When this occurs, hydrogen gas is released and salt is produced. Different acids produce different salts.

    Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen Gas

    • Eg. Hydrocloric Acid + Zinc = Zinc Chloride + Hydrogen
    • 2HCl + Zn = ZnCl2 + H2
  2. Catalyst
    A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction without actually taking place in the reaction itself.
  3. Valency
    • Valency is the number of electrons needed to complete a full or empty outer shell.
    • (+1, +2, +3, +/-4, -3,-2,-1)
  4. Ionic Bond
    An ionic bond is when a pair or more atoms donate or recieve electrons to gain either a full or empty outer shell to become "happy".
  5. Radical`
    A radical is a group of one or more elements that "act as one atom".
  6. Covalent Bond
    A covalent bond is where electrons are not transferred, but 'shared' between a number of atoms.
  7. Isotope
    An isotope is a variation of an element that has a different number of neutrons and is often unstable or radioactive.
  8. Precipitate Reaction
    A precipitate reaction is when two ionic compounds substitute (swap partners) to form an insoluble substance which is the solid precipitate.
  9. Mass Number
    • The mass number of an element is the number of protons + the number of neutrons.
    • The mass number is the number at the bottom of the periodic table of elements.
  10. Corrosion Reaction
    Corrosion is when something deteriorates or wears away.

    Metal + Oxygen = Metal Oxide

    • Iron + Oxygen = Iron Oxide
    • 2(Fe) + O2 = 2(FeO)
  11. Decomposition Reaction
    Decomposition is the breaking down of a compound creating two or more simpler substances.
  12. Compound
    • A compund is a pure substance and has 2 or more elements.
    • Eg. CO2
  13. Ion
    • An ion is an atom with either a positive or negative charge.
    • Originally, an atom has equal numbers of protons and electrons making it neutral.
    • If an atom gains or loses and electron, it becomes an ion because it has a charge.
  14. Halogens
    • Are group 7 on the periodic table.
    • Form ions with a charge of -1.
    • Are never found in their pure form in nature, but are in various types of salts.
    • Have coloured and poisonous vapours.
    • All form molecules, each being made up of two atoms.
  15. Atomic Number
    • The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in an atom.
    • Is also the same number of electrons.
    • The atomic number if found at the top of the periodic table of elements.
  16. Base
    • Bases are also known as alkali and have a pH greater than 7.
    • All bases contain OH -
    • NaOH - Sodium Hydroxide
    • Ca(OH)2 - Calcium Hydroxide
    • NH4OH - Ammonium Hydroxide
    • KOH - Potassium Hydroxide
  17. Acid + Carbonate Reaction
    Acid releases carbon dioxide from carbonates.

    Acid + carbonate = Salt + carbon dioxide + water

    Hydrochloric Acid + Calcium carbonate = Calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water.

    2HCl + CaCO3 = CaCl2 +CO2 + H2O
  18. Acid - Metal Oxide Reaction
    A metal oxide is also a base so it is also a neutralisation reaction.

    Acid + Metal Oxide = Salt +Water

    Sulfuric Acid + Magnesium Oxide = Magnesium Sulfate + Water

    H2SO4 + MgO = MgSO4 + H2O
  19. Acid
    • An acid has a pH lower than 7, and has the ability to react with other substances.
    • An acid is a group of compounds that contain hydrogen.

    • HCl - Hydrochloric Acid
    • H2SO4 - Sulfuric Acid
    • HNO3 - Nitric Acid
    • H3PO4 - Phosphoric Acid
  20. Neutralisation Reaction
    A neutralisation reaction is when an acid reacts with a base to form salt and water.

    Acid + Base = Salt + Water

    Sulfuric Acid + Potassium Hydroxide = Potassium Sulfate + Water

    H2SO4 + KOH = K2SO4 + H2O
  21. Combustion Reaction
    Combustion reaction is when a substance combines with oxygen and produces heat and light energy. This is also known as burning.

    • Ethanol + Oxygen = Carbon + Carbon Dioxide + Water
    • C2H5OH + O2 = C + CO2 + H2O
  22. pH Scale
    The pH scale indicates how acidic or alkaline a substance is.