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Acid - Metal reaction
An acid - metal
reaction is when an acid reacts
with a metal.
When this occurs, hydrogen gas
is released and salt
is produced. Different acids
produce different salts
Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen Gas
- Eg. Hydrocloric Acid + Zinc = Zinc Chloride + Hydrogen
- 2HCl + Zn = ZnCl2 + H2
A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction without actually taking place in the reaction itself.
- Valency is the number of electrons needed to complete a full or empty outer shell.
- (+1, +2, +3, +/-4, -3,-2,-1)
An ionic bond is when a pair or more atoms donate or recieve electrons to gain either a full or empty outer shell to become "happy".
A radical is a group of one or more elements that "act as one atom".
A covalent bond is where electrons are not transferred, but 'shared' between a number of atoms.
An isotope is a variation of an element that has a different number of neutrons and is often unstable or radioactive.
A precipitate reaction is when two ionic compounds substitute (swap partners) to form an insoluble substance which is the solid precipitate.
- The mass number of an element is the number of protons + the number of neutrons.
- The mass number is the number at the bottom of the periodic table of elements.
is when something deteriorates
or wears away.
Metal + Oxygen = Metal Oxide
- Iron + Oxygen = Iron Oxide
- 2(Fe) + O2 = 2(FeO)
Decomposition is the breaking down of a compound creating two or more simpler substances.
- A compund is a pure substance and has 2 or more elements.
- Eg. CO2
- An ion is an atom with either a positive or negative charge.
- Originally, an atom has equal numbers of protons and electrons making it neutral.
- If an atom gains or loses and electron, it becomes an ion because it has a charge.
- Are group 7 on the periodic table.
- Form ions with a charge of -1.
- Are never found in their pure form in nature, but are in various types of salts.
- Have coloured and poisonous vapours.
- All form molecules, each being made up of two atoms.
- The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in an atom.
- Is also the same number of electrons.
- The atomic number if found at the top of the periodic table of elements.
- Bases are also known as alkali and have a pH greater than 7.
- All bases contain OH - NaOH - Sodium Hydroxide
- Ca(OH)2 - Calcium Hydroxide
- NH4OH - Ammonium Hydroxide
- KOH - Potassium Hydroxide
Acid + Carbonate Reaction
Acid releases carbon dioxide from carbonates.
Acid + carbonate = Salt + carbon dioxide + water
Hydrochloric Acid + Calcium carbonate = Calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water.
2HCl + CaCO3 = CaCl2 +CO2 + H2O
Acid - Metal Oxide Reaction
A metal oxide is also a base so it is also a neutralisation reaction.
Acid + Metal Oxide = Salt +Water
Sulfuric Acid + Magnesium Oxide = Magnesium Sulfate + Water
H2SO4 + MgO = MgSO4 + H2O
- An acid has a pH lower than 7, and has the ability to react with other substances.
- An acid is a group of compounds that contain hydrogen.
- HCl - Hydrochloric Acid
- H2SO4 - Sulfuric Acid
- HNO3 - Nitric Acid
- H3PO4 - Phosphoric Acid
A neutralisation reaction is when an acid reacts with a base to form salt and water.
Acid + Base = Salt + Water
Sulfuric Acid + Potassium Hydroxide = Potassium Sulfate + Water
H2SO4 + KOH = K2SO4 + H2O
is when a substance combines with oxygen
and produces heat and light energy.
This is also known as burning.
- Ethanol + Oxygen = Carbon + Carbon Dioxide + Water
- C2H5OH + O2 = C + CO2 + H2O
The pH scale
indicates how acidic
a substance is.